Many people assume that professional writers don't need to rewrite; the words just fall into place. On the contrary, careful writers can't stop fiddling. . . . Students, I realize, don't share my love of rewriting. They think of it as punishment: extra homework or extra infield practice." William Zinsser, 1998
This essay x-rays a comparison between the concepts of application and certification as indices of measuring knowledge.
Abstract. Over the years, there has been a running battle between the universalists and the relativists as to which stand is correct vis-à-vis the philosophical notions of knowledge and morality. Whereas for the universalists morality is universal, eternal, and unchanging, the relativists hold that man is the measure of all things and accordingly, that morality is relative to each individual and/or culture. The universalists contend that our idea of judgment and belief must have standards that they must meet independently of anyone’s propensity to accept it. The relativists built their philosophy on the foundation that there exists extreme variation in customs, manners, religions vis-à-vis different human societies, just as moral beliefs and attitudes of individuals are basically learnt from their own cultural environments. It is on the basis of the alleged absence of all-time and all-place valid standards of truth or morality that the universalists launched a devastating attack on the relativists, arguing that there would be neither moral progress nor any basis for scientifico-technological knowledge if everybody or culture is right about his or its belief or claim to knowledge. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to critically examine the philosophical concept of relativism within the context of knowledge, truth and morality. Through a thorough and critical analysis, the paper demonstrates the latent implications relativism portends for knowledge, the quest for authentic existence as well as social order. On the whole, the paper took a position that notwithstanding the obvious shortcomings of relativism, it has some rich and positive ingredients that could be exploited in our attempt to explore the nature of knowledge and truth, the search for authentic personal existence as well as social order.
Literacy is the crux of schooling. The primary motive of any average student is to acquire a competent reading and writing ability or skill. But unfortunately, many students found themselves to be struggling with what others found to be so easy and simple: they struggle with reading the alphabet, knowing it and being able to write it when the need arises. Thus, they see themselves as primitive fellows in a world of growing literacy. Despite normal intelligence, many students assume themselves to be nothing but people with empty brain, unfit for the clarion call for literacy. They feel inferior, incompetent and unprivileged literary lovers. They develop low self esteem and if care is not taken, they get drowned into the slough of despond.