Abstract. Over the years, there has been a running battle between the universalists and the relativists as to which stand is correct vis-à-vis the philosophical notions of knowledge and morality. Whereas for the universalists morality is universal, eternal, and unchanging, the relativists hold that man is the measure of all things and accordingly, that morality is relative to each individual and/or culture. The universalists contend that our idea of judgment and belief must have standards that they must meet independently of anyone’s propensity to accept it. The relativists built their philosophy on the foundation that there exists extreme variation in customs, manners, religions vis-à-vis different human societies, just as moral beliefs and attitudes of individuals are basically learnt from their own cultural environments. It is on the basis of the alleged absence of all-time and all-place valid standards of truth or morality that the universalists launched a devastating attack on the relativists, arguing that there would be neither moral progress nor any basis for scientifico-technological knowledge if everybody or culture is right about his or its belief or claim to knowledge. The purpose of this paper, therefore, is to critically examine the philosophical concept of relativism within the context of knowledge, truth and morality. Through a thorough and critical analysis, the paper demonstrates the latent implications relativism portends for knowledge, the quest for authentic existence as well as social order. On the whole, the paper took a position that notwithstanding the obvious shortcomings of relativism, it has some rich and positive ingredients that could be exploited in our attempt to explore the nature of knowledge and truth, the search for authentic personal existence as well as social order.
Jacobean drama is named after Jacobus, the Latin translation of “James”. Most scholars use this term to refer collectively to the works created during the reign of James I (1603-1625) in England. Simply put, Jacobean drama is simply the drama that was performed during the reign of Elizabeth’s successor. It evolved out of Elizabethan dramas but around 1610, began to show a marked shift from the previous era’s theatrical tradition. This is a period characterized by literature and arts not just because of its societal importance but also because of the king’s love for them. Revenge tragedy, is therefore a form of tragedy where a character seeks revenge over the loss of something dear to him/her directly or indirectly. The main characteristics of the Jacobean revenge tragedy includes; a complex plot, murder, madness/insanity, selfish desires, high sense of violence, we see a protagonist who has a serious grievance against a formidable opponent, cruel act and torment. We also see man’s obsession with wealth, material things and corruption.
Everyone knows William Shakespeare, but Shakespeare was just one of many great writers working during the English Renaissance, a period of great art and literature lasting from the late 15th to the early 17th century. Many of the best writers of the periods were, like Shakespeare, playwrights who wrote their work to be performed. And one of the best, and most notorious, of Shakespeare's contemporaries was John Webster, famous playwright of the English Renaissance.
CONCLUSION The similarities and differences between “The Duchess of Malfi” and “The Rovers” can never be overemphasize. Restoration comedy and Jacobean Revenge tragedy deeply applies Thomas Hobbes and Niccolo Machiavellian’s principle. Restoration comedy celebrates this principle while Jacobean revenge tragedy discourages the principle by pointing out its negative effect.