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Animal Research International

Animal Research International

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Genetic Evaluation of Linear Udder and Body Conformation Traits in Bunaji Cows

Genetic Evaluation of Linear Udder and Body Conformation Traits in Bunaji Cows

Genetic parameters for conformation traits of Bunaji cows are presented in this study. Data from 50 Bunaji cows collected between 2007 and 2008 at the Dairy Research Farm, National Animal Production Research Institute (NAPRI), Shika, Zaria was used. Analyzed conformation traits includes 7 body conformation traits: stature (ST), chest width (CW), wither height (WH), heart girth (HG), body length (BL), body depth (BD), rump width (RW) and 7 udder conformation traits: rear udder height (RUH), rear udder width (RUW), udder depth (UD), udder cleft (UC), fore teat position (FTP), rear teat placements (RTP) and teat length (TL), both of which were measured in centimeter (cm) using measuring stick and flexible tape. The measurements were taken monthly by 3 evaluators for the complete lactation length of the cows, this resulted in 1200 cumulative records, The estimated h2 of the linear conformation traits were between 0.203 (UD) and 0.621 (HG). The genetic correlations amongst the body conformation traits ranged from 0.116 to 0.992 while the phenotypic correlation ranged from 0.187 to 0.743. The genetic and phenotypic correlations amongst the udder conformation traits varied between – 0.538 to 0.352 and -0.257 to 0.325, respectively. The observed higher magnitude of genetic correlations than the phenotypic correlations for most of the conformation traits, coupled with the high heritability and repeatability estimate indicates that most of the conformation traits are influenced more by genetic factors rather than environmental factors; hence they can be improved with high degree of certainty through selection.

 
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Histogenesis of the Stomach of Helmeted Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris)

Histogenesis of the Stomach of Helmeted Guinea Fowl (Numida Meleagris)

The histogenesis of the stomach (proventriculus and ventriculus) of helmeted guinea fowl (Numida meleagris) was studied using light microscopy and histochemical techniques. Fifteen (15) embryos were utilized for this study. The result showed that at 10th and 13th days of embryonic development, the primordial proventriculus and ventriculus were lined by pseudostratified columnar epithelium surrounded by mesenchyme connective tissue. At 19th day of embryonic development, the epithelium of the proventriculus and ventriculus as well as the proventricular glands was lined by simple cuboidal epithelium. Tunics; tunica muscularis and serosa were evident at this stage. At 23rd day of embryonic development, tubular glands of the ventriculus became canalized. The 27th day of embryonic develoment of the primordial proventriculus showed an organized glandular lobules, central cavity and prominent muscle layer while the ventriculus showed the presence of cuticle, simple tubular glands, loose connective tissues of the lamina propria and muscle layer. This study has shown that primordial stomach appeared to be completly differentiated to definitive stomach by the 27th day with the potential of commencing functional role.

 
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Performance and Nutrient Retention of Finisher Broilers Fed Graded Levels of Detarium Microcarpum (Guill and Sperr) Seed Meal

Performance and Nutrient Retention of Finisher Broilers Fed Graded Levels of Detarium Microcarpum (Guill and Sperr) Seed Meal

The feeding trial was conducted with two hundred and twenty five 28 days old ‘Sayed’ broiler chicks randomly allocated to five dietary treatments to investigate the performance and nutrient retention response of finisher broiler chicks fed diets containing 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% cooked Detarium microcarpum seed meals (DMSM), respectively. The results of the growth performance, feed intake, feed conversion and protein efficiency ratios were similar (P>0.05) across the treatments. The percentage protein and other nutrients retention of birds fed the control and DMSM based diets did not differ significantly (P>0.05) among the treatments but an improvement was observed with increasing DMSM inclusion in the diets. The supplementation of GNC with DMSM however, reduced cost of feed per kg, cost of feed per kg weight gain.

 
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Effects of Fish Bean (Tephrosia Vogelii) Leave Extract Exposed to Freshwater Cichlid Fish – Tilapia Zilli

Effects of Fish Bean (Tephrosia Vogelii) Leave Extract Exposed to Freshwater Cichlid Fish – Tilapia Zilli

This research was designed to investigate the effect of Tephrosia vogelii leaves extract on Tilapia zilli under laboratory conditions. The concentrations of the leaves extract used were 4.00, 2.00, 1.00, 0.50 and 0.25ml/l. The 96- hour LC50 was 0.71ml/l with lower and upper confidence limits of 0.31ml/l and 1.63ml/l respectively. The opercular ventilation and fin counts increased with an increase in the concentrations of the leaves extract at the end of 96- hour exposure period. Respiratory distress, loss of balance, settling at the bottom motionless and erratic swimming was observed before death during the exposure period. Histopathological examination of the gill, liver and kidney of the treated fish showed oedema of gill lamella and gill hyperplasia to vacuolation and necrosis of the liver cells while the kidney cells revealed a degeneration of kidney tubules. Phytochemical analysis of the leaves extract indicated the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin, cardiac glycoside, rotenone, steroids, balsam, phenol and volatile oil. The result of this study calls for the need to discourage the use of toxic plants for catching fish in Nigeria water bodies.

 
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Aspects of the Ecology of Spittlebugs (Homoptera: Cercopidae) in Nsukka, South East, Nigeria

Aspects of the Ecology of Spittlebugs (Homoptera: Cercopidae) in Nsukka, South East, Nigeria

Species type and pattern of distribution of spittlebugs was studied from 6th March to 15th December 2009 within the University of Nigeria, Nsukka campus. Three spittlebug species namely, Deois flavopicta, Aphrophora saratogensis and Philaenus spumarius were identified within the University campus. Whereas A. saratogensis was most abundant inSeptember, D. flavopicta occurred most in October while P. spumarius was most abundant in November. The population of nymphs was found to increase with increasing rainfall and declined as the dry season began. A total of thirty-two (32) host plant species consisting of grasses, herbs, shrubs and trees were identified as habitats for the three spittlebug species. Whereas D. flavopicta and A. saratogensis inhabied only grasses andherbs, P. spumarius inhabited a mixture of trees and shrubs. Although no obvious effectof the activities of D. flavopicta and A. saratogensis was noticed on host plants, there was flaking, deflowering and fruiting, as well as drying up effects on Ricinus communis during heavy invasion by larvae of P. spumarius.

 
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Effect of Sub-Acute Exposure to Bonny Light Crude Oil on Plasma Biochemistry and Liver Histopathology of Albino Rat

Effect of Sub-Acute Exposure to Bonny Light Crude Oil on Plasma Biochemistry and Liver Histopathology of Albino Rat

The study investigated the consequences of the effect of sub-acute exposure to Nigerian Bonny Light Crude Oil (BLCO) crude oil on the blood chemistry and integrity of the liver of male albino rats. A total of 20 male wistar rats were used for the study. Exposure to crude oil was achieved by oral administration of increasing doses (0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.0 ml of BLCO/g body weight) to the rats every day for two weeks. The initial and final body weights were recorded. The toxic effects on the liver were accessed using commercial kits and histopathological studies were carried out using standard histopathological technique. The results revealed that liver cells were damaged due to the crude oil administered. There was significant increase (p<0.05) in alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities and total and direct bilirubin concentrations, and a significant decrease (p<0.05) in the total protein concentration as compared with the control group. Histopathological examinations indicated that crude oil caused severe pathological changes, it also revealed mild to severe disruption of the normal architectural structure of the liver accompanied by the death of many liver cells and the presence of pocket of blood within the liver parenchyma and cholangitis in the group treated with the highest dose (1.00 ml of BLCO /g body weight). The results therefore indicate that the sub-acute administration of the crude oil brought about impaired function of the liver which could lead to liver disease at very low doses and are such the use of the crude oil as a therapy to poisons, convulsion and other gastrointestinal disorders should be discouraged.

 
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In-Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Ointment Containing Physcia Grisea Extract on Candida Albicans

In-Vitro Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Ointment Containing Physcia Grisea Extract on Candida Albicans

The in-vitro evaluation of antimicrobial activity of ointment containing Physcia grisea extract on clinical isolates of Candida albcans was carried out using Agar Cup Diffusion Technique. The result of the in vitro evaluation showed that P. grisea ointment has antifungal activity on C. albcans. The efficacy of the P. grisea ointment was also compared with tioconazole ointment which is a synthetic antifungal cream. The results of the comparative test showed that P. grisea ointment has a moderate activity on the C. albicans. This means that in the treatment of candidiasis, ointment containing P. griseamay be used, if properly utilized.

 
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Pathomorphology and Aerobic Bacteria Associated With Pneumonia in Small Ruminants Slaughtered at the Nsukka Abattoir

Pathomorphology and Aerobic Bacteria Associated With Pneumonia in Small Ruminants Slaughtered at the Nsukka Abattoir

Pneumonia occurs in all ages of sheep and goats, in all breeds, in every country of the world causing heavy economic losses. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of pneumonia and aerobic bacteria flora associated with it in small ruminants slaughtered at the Nsukka abattoir. Pneumonic lung of small ruminants were examined for gross lesions. Lung samples were collected and processed using standard protocols for histopathological and bacteriological examinations. Lung samples from 342 goats and 40 sheep were examined. A total of 116(30.36 %) lungs had various types of pneumonia. Two major types of pneumonia were observed during histopathological examination; bronchopneumonia 64(55.17 %) and interstitial pneumonia 52(44.82 %). Out of the 116 pneumonic lungs collected over a six months period, 98 were caprine lungs and 18 were ovine lungs. Aerobic bacteria isolated from the pneumonic lungs were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mannheimia haemolytica, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus and Pasteurella multocida respectively. There was no significant seasonal, species and breed associations (p>0.05) between pneumonic lesions observed and the associated aerobic bacteria.

 
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Growth and Reproductive Performances of Weaner Pigs Fed Maize Replaced Cassava Diet

Growth and Reproductive Performances of Weaner Pigs Fed Maize Replaced Cassava Diet

The effect of Cassava replacing maize in the diet of grower pigs was investigated. A total of thirty six 5 week old male weaner large white \landrace cross pigs were used for thestudy. These were divided into four groups A – D ̎S (n = 9)̎̎ followng two weeks of acclimatization. The basic ingredients in their diets were soybean meal (SBM) palm kennel cake (PKC), maize, cassava flour, vitamin premix and sodium chloride. Four dietsA – D were formulated using these ingredients. Diet A had maize only as the source of energy whie diets B, C and D had maize replaced with 50, 75 and 100% cassava respectively. Groups a, B C and D were maintained on diets A, B, C and D respectively from week 7 of age until they attained 5 months of age. Observations for clinical conditions like anorexia, diarrhea, fever and signs of hydrocyanic acid intoxications and sexual behavioral patterns related to puberty were made throughout the course of study. Moreover, weekly determination of live weights and testicular growth were also carriedout. There was no overt manifestation of any abnormality by the members of the maize replaced cassava diet. At 15 i l , f f f th weeks o age, members o group B and C were showing signs of sexual maturity followed a week later by those of group A and at 19h week by all the groups. Performance of groups C and D members were generally inferior to those of groups A and B. (P < 0.05). However, all the groups had comparable testicular diameter. It was concluded that inclusion o cassava meal in the diet of grower pigs promotes growth and early maturity. To avoid cyanide poisoning the cassava processing should be done properly while protein source should be such as to prevent precipitating its deficiency due to the low protein value of cassava root meal.

 
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Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Protopterus Annectens (Owen) in Idah Area of River Niger, Nigeria

Length-Weight Relationship and Condition Factor of Protopterus Annectens (Owen) in Idah Area of River Niger, Nigeria

A total of 62 samples of Protopterus annectens (Owen) were examined for this study from Idah area of River Niger between August and November 2008. The length-weight relationship calculated for species gave a b-value of 2.55 which is indicative of negative allometric growth. It attained a length of 59cm and weight of 397g. The condition factor varied from 0.23 to 0.76 with a mean of 0.39+0.08 and showed that the fish was well and in good environment for growth and survival

 
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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Created 2 years ago by Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.