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Animal Research International

Animal Research International

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Preliminary Cytological Study Ofamietophrynus Regularis (Reuss, 1833) From Afon, Kwara State, Nigeria

Preliminary Cytological Study Ofamietophrynus Regularis (Reuss, 1833) From Afon, Kwara State, Nigeria

Information on the karyotype of Amietophrynus regularis is scarce. 8 specimens of A. regularis were collected from Afon, Kwara State, Nigeria. The specimens were injected intraperitoneally with 0.5% colchicine and left for 5 hours before they were sacrificed. Chromosomes were prepared from the bone marrow of the femur. 80 metaphase spreads were scored and the diploid chromosome number ranged from 2n=38 to 2n=42. The modal number of chromosome was found to be 2n=40 with percentage occurrence of 47.5%.

 
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Toxicity of Acalypha Torta (Muell) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice and Rat

Toxicity of Acalypha Torta (Muell) Leaves Ethanolic Extract in Mice and Rat

Herbal pharmaceuticals and nutraceuticals are growing in popularity worldwide. These herbal remedies, however natural, can cause some serious damaging effects on the vital organs of the body due to inadequacy in standardization and safety regulations. A 24 hour acute toxicity study was carried out to ascertain the risk of acute intoxication of selected doses (200 to 8,000 mg/kg body weight) of the Acalypha torta leaves ethanolic extract in mice. Subacute toxicity was also assessed following intraperitoneal administration of doses < 50% of the median lethal dose (LD50) for 28 days in Wistar albino rats. Results of acute toxicity studies of extract given intraperitoneal to albino rat gave LD50 of 562.30 mg/kg body weight. All the doses of Acalypha torta extract administered reduced appetite in all the experimental animals used, whereas high doses, > 2000 mg/kg body weight caused loss of appetite, increased respiratory rate, convulsion and reduced responses to pains. Observed pathological changes after 28 day subacute toxicity study in rats were necrosis, follicular disorganization, inflammatory reactions, fibrosis and bronchial dilatation. These changes were seen in the liver, spleen, brain, heart, kidney and lung sections. These findings may suggest that prolonged use of the extract could lead to organ damage.

 
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The Role of Zoonotic and Parasitic Agent in Bioterrorism the Need for Biosecurity and Biosafety Standard and Compliance in Nigeria

The Role of Zoonotic and Parasitic Agent in Bioterrorism the Need for Biosecurity and Biosafety Standard and Compliance in Nigeria

As a result of new world era of terrorism in 21st century; terrorist have employed different types of weapons to kill and maim people in soft targets. The risk posed by biological agents as a weapon needs evaluation both historical and technological for a better understanding. From historical and technological point of view biological agents are more dangerous and more devastating than other weapons of warfare. The relative ease of production and readily available sources of acquisition coupled with the technical know-how encourages the proliferation of biological weapons. This paper focuses on the role of biological agents (zoonoses and parasites) in bioterrorism the need for biosafety standard compliance to further reduce threat on biosecurity in Nigeria and Africa in general. The threat and antics of bioterrorism is very important and must be taken seriously by all nations.

 
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Aspects of the Reproductive Biology of Hatchery–Reared Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell 1822) in Anambra State, Nigeria Ii: Egg Diameter

Aspects of the Reproductive Biology of Hatchery–Reared Clarias Gariepinus (Burchell 1822) in Anambra State, Nigeria Ii: Egg Diameter

The egg diameter distribution frequency of four batches of hatchery–reared gravid Clarias gariepinus with 10 fish per batch of varying fish weights per batch, namely: 60 ± 0.09 g, 125 ± 0.11 g, 250 ± 0.14 g and 500 ± 0.12 g was studied. Eggs from paired ovaries hardened with 1% formalin in 0.6% saline solution for 3 weeks to become non-clumping were graded through a stack of eight sieves with mesh sizes: 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.4 mm, 1.8 mm and 2.0 mm. The different batches of similar sized eggs retained at each sieve were counted. The mean egg counts of diameters of 0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.4 mm and 1.8 mm were 402.35 ± 70.85, 682.90 ± 104.40, 65.775 ± 10.82, 364.70 ± 69.26, 1829.0 ± 378.36, 78.0750 and 18.45 ± 5.64 eggs, respectively. Of the seven (7) egg diameter frequencies (0.3 mm, 0.5 mm, 0.8 mm, 1.0 mm, 1.2 mm, 1.4 mm and 1.8 mm) monitored, the mean egg diameter frequency of 1.2 mm showed the highest egg peak and that of 1.8 mm showed the least egg peak. There were bimodal peaks occurring at 0.5 mm and 1.2 mm in the egg distribution frequency chart indicating that C. gariepinus can spawn more than once in a breeding season. Keywords: Grav

 
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Insects Associated With Wine From Raffia Palm (Raphia Hookeri) in Alor, Nigeria

Insects Associated With Wine From Raffia Palm (Raphia Hookeri) in Alor, Nigeria

The insects associated with palm wine from raffia palm (Raphia hookeri) were studied in three villages in Southeastern, Nigeria for four weeks. The insects were sieved out after 24 hours from each 10 litres of raffia palm. Gas chromatography was used to analyse the raffia palm wine after 24 hours. The daily collection of the insects lasted for 28 days between February and March, 2008. The results showed that as the number of days increased the concentration of glucose and fructose decreased with alcoholic content increasing at varying pH and temperature. A total of eight insect species made up of seven genera represented by seven families – Formicidea, Apidae, Drosophilidae, Sarcophagidae, Calliphoridae, Nitidulidae and Curculronidae were obtained. There was a preponderance in the collection of Camponotus maculatus, Maycodrosophylla sp. and Lepidoptera larvae in all the site with C. acvapimensis and Apis mellifera L. collected in fairly large numbers from all the sites (villages). There was also preponderance in the collection of Diptera larvae, even though they were collected from only one village Ide. Sparsely collected insect species from Ide village included Sarcophaga tibialis Macq, Auchmeromyia senegalensis, and Brachypeplus sp. (as a singleton). Cryptarcha sp. was found only in Ide and Okebuonye villages while Rhynchophorus phoenicis was collected in all the villages. The significant difference in the collection of Mycodrosophilla sp. in the three villages were traced to variability in the movement of the conspecifics and habitat heterogeneity while the significant difference in the collection of Diptera larvae was attributed to differences in habitat use, differences in food resource and availability, and environmental heterogeneity.

 
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Studies on the Morphometric Characteristics of the Simulium Damnosum Complex in Uzo-Uwani, Enugu State, Nigeria

Studies on the Morphometric Characteristics of the Simulium Damnosum Complex in Uzo-Uwani, Enugu State, Nigeria

Studies on the morphometric characteristics of the Simulium vectors of onchocerciasis were carried out in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area (LGA), Enugu State, Nigeria, between September 2008 and January 2009, with the objectives of identifying the sibling species present in the area and comparing the result obtained with cytological studies earlier done in the area. It was also meant to relate fly types with the types of onchocerciasis present in the area. The Simulium flies were collected using human baits. Seventy-five (75) flies were subjected to morphometric examinations. The thorax length, antenna length, wing length, wing width and femur length were measured and the data obtained were transformed into ratios. The morphometric studies on the Simulium damnosum populations in Nkpologu showed a higher abundance of savanna flies (54) than forest flies (21) among those sampled. The classification was done using the thorax length/antenna length (TL/AL) ratio. Discriminate function analysis revealed that 96.0% of originally grouped cases were correctly classified. The result agreed with cytotaxonomic studies on Simulium done in the area which showed predominance of savanna flies. The implications of the results are discussed.

 
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Biochemical Values Stability in Serum and Plasma of Renal Diseased Patients

Biochemical Values Stability in Serum and Plasma of Renal Diseased Patients

The stability of five parameters in serum and plasma after prolonged storage was studied by determining the effects of storage temperature and time on the laboratory results of samples obtained from renal diseased patients. Serum and plasma were separated from clot and red cells and analysed in duplicates immediately to obtain the baseline fresh value (zero hour value). The remaining serum and plasma were stored at 40C ± 20C and 320C ± 20C for 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, 24, 30, 36, 42, 48, 72, 96 and 120 hours, and then assayed in duplicates. Statistically significant changes from the zero hour mean value were determined using ANOVA. Instability (P<0.05) was observed at 320C for sodium and potassium ions after 96 hours, chloride after 72 hours, creatinine after 42hours and urea after 24 hours. All parameters in serum and plasma stored at 40C (refrigerated) were stable within 5 days. Proper storage temperatures and time must therefore be considered for these analytes if measurement does not to take place immediately after specimen collection.

 
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Larvicidal Effects of Leaf, Bark and Nutshell of Anacardium Occidentale on the Larvae of Anopheles Gambiae in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Larvicidal Effects of Leaf, Bark and Nutshell of Anacardium Occidentale on the Larvae of Anopheles Gambiae in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Comparative analysis of the larvicidal properties of aqueous extracts of leaves, bark and nutshell of Anacardium occidentale L. (Cashew) were evaluated on the larvae of Anopheles gambiae. Three concentrations of 10/100ml, 20/100ml and 30/100ml each of leaf, bark and nutshell were prepared in three replicates. The treatments were exposed to two durations of thirty minutes and one hour. After thirty minutes of treatment, the mean mortalities were 53%, 68% and 56% for leaf, 64%, 71% and 57% for bark and 53%, 68% and 58% for nutshell, while the mean mortalities after one hour of exposure were 68%, 70% and 93% for leaf, 84%, 93% and 97% for bark and 61%, 68% and 73% for nutshell. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) showed that at thirty minutes of exposure, there were no significant difference (P<0.05) between concentrations and the percentage mortality, but it was highly significant (P<0.01) after 1 hour of exposure. Quantities phytochemical analysis revealed the presence of tannin, oxalate, stearic acid, glucoronic acid and glutamic acid in the leaf, bark and nutshell extracts.

 
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Ixodid Ticks of Cattle in Borno and Yobe States of Northeastern Nigeria: Breed and Coat Colour Preference

Ixodid Ticks of Cattle in Borno and Yobe States of Northeastern Nigeria: Breed and Coat Colour Preference

The prevalence of Ixodid ticks of cattle in Borno and Yobe states, Northeastern Nigeria was studied from March to October, 2010. Out of 3,150 cattle examined in these areas, 1,095 (34.8%) of them were infested with ticks. Of these, 57.1% of the infestation was among cattle in Borno State, while 42.9% was observed in Yobe State. Out of the total number of cattle examined, 2,175 (69.0) were males and 33.8% of them were infested with ticks. The number of females examined was 975 (31.0), out of which 36.9% had ticks. There was no significant difference (p > 0.05) in the infestation of ticks between the male and female cattle. The ticks observed on the cattle in both states were Amblyomma variegatum (43.8%), followed by Hyalomma sp (24.7%), Boophilus sp (21.9%) and Dermacentor sp (9.6%). Overall, tick infestation occurred most among the White Fulani breed with a prevalence of 240 (21.9%), followed by N’ dama and Red Bororo in which the prevalence of ticks was 180 (16.4%) for each of the breeds. The least (6.8%) infestation of ticks was among the Keteku breed. The preferred sites of attachment for ticks among cattle examined in Borno state were inner thigh, dew lap, abdomen, legs, udder, dorsum, ear and hump, in this order. Cattle examined in Yobe state were infested on their dorsum, inner thigh, legs, abdomen, udder and then on the dew lap, ear and hump. The ticks observed infesting cattle in these states are of veterinary importance, because they are vectors of economically important blood protozoan parasites. Adequate control measures should therefore be adopted to protect these animals.

 
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Toxic Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Diethyl Phthalate on the Gills of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) Juveniles

Toxic Effects of Sublethal Concentrations of Diethyl Phthalate on the Gills of African Catfish (Clarias Gariepinus) Juveniles

An investigation on the effect of Diethyl phthalate (DEP) on the gill of the African catfish Clarias gariepinus was carried out in the laboratory. Seventy-five (75) catfish fingerlings were subjected to continuous exposure to sublethal concentrations of DEP (30, 40, 60 and 80 μg/L) for a period of four weeks. The gills of the catfish were removed every 15 days for histological examination. The degree of distortion of the gills (heamorrahging of the gill, continuous degeneration of the gill filaments, disruption of epithelium owing to rapid cell lysis, severe destruction of the lamellae) was proportional to the exposure periods (0, 15 and 30 days) and concentration of the DEP was found to be dose and time dependent which led to asphyxiation and stress in the catfish.

 
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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Created 2 years ago by Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.