Animal Research International

Animal Research International

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Heavy Metal Concentrations in  a West African Sahel Reservoir

Heavy Metal Concentrations in a West African Sahel Reservoir

ABSTRACT: Heavy metal concentrations were investigated over a period of 12 months in five stations in Alau reservoir, Maiduguri, in the North – east sahel zone of Nigeria. The mean concentrations of zinc, copper, lead, iron and manganese were 0.17 + 0.02 mg/l (range 0.14+ 0.03 - 0.19+ 0.02 mg/l), 0.56 + 0.64+ 0.01 mg/l), 0.56 + 0.06 mg/l (range 0.52+ 0.01 - 0.02 mg/l (range 0.54+ 0.03 - 0.58+ 0.06 mg/l), 0.09 + 0.02 mg/l (range 0.07+ - 0.12+ 0.01 mg/l) and 0.19 + 027 mg/l (range 0.04 .+ 0.01- 0.66+ 0.01 mg/l) respectively. Except for lead, mean concentrations varied significantly between stations (P<0.05). The concentrations of heavy metals were below contamination levels and fall within the limits reported for other West African small sahel reservoirs.

 
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Effects of Temperature and Ph on the Oxygen Consumption  Rate of  Sudanonautes  (Convexonautes Aubryi)  Floweri (De Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda)

Effects of Temperature and Ph on the Oxygen Consumption Rate of Sudanonautes (Convexonautes Aubryi) Floweri (De Man) (Crustacea: Decapoda)

ABSTRACT: The oxygen consumption rate of a freshwater sub-terrestrial crab, Sudanonautes floweri in relation to different temperatures and pH was investigated. The average temperature and pH o the crab’s peaty stream habitat were 29.5 0C and 7.5 respectively. The lethal temperatures at pH 7.0 recorded for the species were 14.50C and 34.50C respectively. The oxygen consumption rate (Q) within the temperature range of 210C – 310C increased with temperature but decreased in the zones of temperature stress (≤ 160C and ≥ 310C). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between weight specific oxygen consumption (QW-1) of the male and female crabs. The oxygen consumption rate was positively correlated with the body weight of the crabs (r = 1.0); but was inversely related to the unit weight of the crab per hour (r = -0.95). The average oxygen consumption of the animal at 30 0C and pH 7.0 was 53.1 µg O2 g-1 h-1.

 
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Local Disease Perception and Treatment of Onchocerciasis  in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria

Local Disease Perception and Treatment of Onchocerciasis in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area, Enugu State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: Local disease perception and treatment of onchocerciasis were studied in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State, Nigeria. The objectives of the study were to ascertain the level of understanding of the aetiology of onchocerciasis and the management of the disease in the area. Different sampling methods including cluster sampling and random sampling were used in the selection of the sample units. Data collection methods included the use of questionnaires and interviews. From the study, it was found that the people of the area are aware of the presence and nuisance value of Simulium flies, commonly called the b ackly, but do not associate the bite with the manifestations of onchocerciasis which are common in their communities. It was discovered that ignorance was at the root of many problems associated with Onchocerca volvulus disease such as discrimination against people with oncho-rashes, lack of proper l treatment of the disease and abuse of the choice drug for treatment of onchocerciasis (ivermectin). Poverty is also a contributory factor to lack of adequate treatment of the disease in the area. The result also showed that nodulectomy is a common and accepted treatment method in the area for Onchocerca nodule. On the basis of the result, it is recommended that enlightenment programme is needed in the area together with a campaign for nodulectomy. In the enlightenment programme, use should be made of Community Directed Distributors already trained by World Health Organization (WHO) for the distribution of ivermectin under the African Programme for Onchocerciasis Control (APOC).

 
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Differences in Meristic Counts of the Genus  Clarias (Pisces: Clariidae) in Anambra River, Nigeria

Differences in Meristic Counts of the Genus Clarias (Pisces: Clariidae) in Anambra River, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: Specific differences in meristic counts were exhibited in both the anal fin ray count and the vertebral count in the clariids of Anambra r ver, Nigeria. There was a close numerical relationship between the number of anal fin rays and the number of vertebrae. The present study further justifies the taxonomic importance of anal fin ray count in differentiating Clarias species.

 
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Mayr’s Coefficient of Difference and Taxonomy  of  Clarias (Clariidae – Scopoli, 1777)

Mayr’s Coefficient of Difference and Taxonomy of Clarias (Clariidae – Scopoli, 1777)

ABSTRACT: The oxygen consumption rate of a freshwater sub-terrestrial crab, Sudanonautes floweri in relation to different temperatures and pH was investigated. The average temperature and pH o the crab’s peaty stream habitat were 29.5 0C and 7.5 respectively. The lethal temperatures at pH 7.0 recorded for the species were 14.50C and 34.50C respectively. The oxygen consumption rate (Q) within the temperature range of 210C – 310C increased with temperature but decreased in the zones of temperature stress (≤ 160C and ≥ 310C). There was no significant difference (P>0.05) between weight specific oxygen consumption (QW-1) of the male and female crabs. The oxygen consumption rate was positively correlated with the body weight of the crabs (r = 1.0); but was inversely related to the unit weight of the crab per hour (r = -0.95). The average oxygen consumption of the animal at 30 0C and pH 7.0 was 53.1 µg O2 g-1 h-1.

 
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Quantitative Protein and Fat  Metabolism in West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Margaritaria Discoidea as Supplement

Quantitative Protein and Fat Metabolism in West African Dwarf Sheep Fed Margaritaria Discoidea as Supplement

ABSTRACT: Protein and energy utilization and quantitative retention of protein, fat and energy was investigated with twelve castrated Djallonke sheep averaging (20.0 ± 2.2kg BW) in nitrogen and energy balance trials. Dried leaves of Margaritaria discoidea were offered as supplement at two levels (25% (diet 2) and 50% (diet 3) of DMI), replacing hay in a basal hay diet. The basal hay diet w thout supplementation was the control. Measurements were performed by means of nitrogen and carbon balances with the use of indirect calorimetry. The digestibility of prote n was not influenced by supplementation, while utilization of protein was influenced (P<0.05). Metabolisability of energy (ME/GE) was on the average 46.7 (SEM 1.6) % being not significantly (P>0.05) different between treatment. Diet 3 had a higher (P<0.05) total amount of energy retained in protein and fat (0.28 MJ/d) compared with the control d et. It was concluded that Margaritaria discoidea improved protein utilization and retention in Djallonke sheep.

 
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The Effect of Fish Moisture Content on Oviposition, Fecundity and Development of the Hide Beetle,  Dermestes Maculatus  Degeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

The Effect of Fish Moisture Content on Oviposition, Fecundity and Development of the Hide Beetle, Dermestes Maculatus Degeer (Coleoptera: Dermestidae)

ABSTRACT: Oviposition, fecundity and development of Dermestes maculatus in Clarias ebriensis with different moisture contents (14%, 36%, 41%, 56%, 66%, 73%, 77%) were investigated from January to April, 2003. Catfish of different moisture content and a pair of male and female D. maculatus constituted a treatment and each of the seven treatments was replicated thrice. The treatment with fish of 14% moisture content served as the control. Generally, the pre-oviposition period, egg incubation period, oviposition peak, percentage number of eggs hatching to larvae, duration of larval emergence, larval developmental period and duration of pupal emergence were all moisture-dependent. At 290 C and 58% RH, fecundity ranged from 54-598 eggs. The eggs measured 3.38±0.44 mm in length. The larvae had five larval instars which measured 3 28±0.71, 6.06±0.82, 8.04±0.75, 10.83±0.97 and 13.0±0.29 mm in length respectively. Larval developmental period was 16-23 days and larvae fed voraciously and bored into the flesh and head capsule of fish...

 
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Effect of  Actellic 25 Ec on the Differential Leucocyte Counts of the Catfish Clarias Albopunctatus (Nichole & Lamonte, 1953)

Effect of Actellic 25 Ec on the Differential Leucocyte Counts of the Catfish Clarias Albopunctatus (Nichole & Lamonte, 1953)

ABSTRACT: The changes in the total and differential leucocyte count in the fish Clarias albopunctatus exposed to sublethal concentrations of actellic 25 EC (0, 0.3, 0.5, 0 8 and 1.0 µg/l) were studied for 18 days in a static renewal bioassay system. Compared w th the control, there was significant leucocytosis (P<0.05) in the actellic -exposed fish. The total leucocyte counts also differed significantly (P <0.05) in the treatment groups. The lymphocytes were the dominant leucocyte subgroup in the blood of the fish. There was significant lymphocytosis in the actellic 25 EC-exposed fish. Decreased eosinophils, monocytopenia and neutropenia were evident in the treatment groups. These observations are indications of the mobilization of the body’s defense system due to Actellic25 challenge leading to leucopoiesis.

 
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Community Participation in the Control of Parasitic Diseases: The Case of Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area

Community Participation in the Control of Parasitic Diseases: The Case of Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area

ABSTRACT: A study on the epidemiology and effects of human onchocerciasis on productivity and social lives of rural communities in Uzo-Uwani Local Government Area of Enugu State was carried out between 1998 and 2000. The objectives of the study were to assess the level of endemicity of onchocerciasis in the 16 communities that make up the local government area and to ascertain the effects of the disease on the pattern of social interactions and the age of marriage of the infected individuals. The work also involved the local disease perception and treatment of the disease in the area and histopathological studies of the Onchocerca nodules. In the course of the studies, interviews were conducted for individuals and various groups in the communities including the Community Directed Distributors (CDDs) of ivermectin in the area. During these interactions, a number of problems that beset the control of onchocerciasis in the area became obvious. This paper reports on the community participation in the control of the disease, the problems encountered by these rural people in their efforts (which include lack of funds, late arrival of drugs, transportation and communication problems) and makes recommendations on how to overcome some of these problems.

 
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Helminth Fauna of Tadarida (Chaeraphon) Nigeriae (Thomas, 1913) (Microchiroptera: Molossidae)

Helminth Fauna of Tadarida (Chaeraphon) Nigeriae (Thomas, 1913) (Microchiroptera: Molossidae)

ABSTRACT: A checklist of helminth parasites isolated from Tadarida (Chaeraphon) nigeriae is presented. Out of 857 bats examined 658 (76.78%) were infected by helminth parasites. Details of the taxa presented show that 2 were trematodes; 2 were cestodes; and 5 were nematodes. Observation on the distribution of the worms within the host shows that they were found mainly in the alimentary canal and peritoneal cavity. Rictularia was the predominant helminth parasite of these bats in this study with 49.59% of the bats examined found infected with this parasite. Female bats were found with higher infection rates with the helminths than the males. There are similarities in the type of parasites infecting bats collected from Nsukka and those collected from other places. Significant levels of positive associations exist between the parasites. Food habits based on stomach content ana yses revealed that in volume and in actual numbers, beetle (Coleoptera) and moths (Lepidoptera) comprised the major prey items in the diet.

 
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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Created 2 years ago by Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.