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Animal Research International

Animal Research International

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Comparative Efficacy of Diaminazine Aceturate and Isomethamidium Chloride in Rabbits Experimentally Infected With Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei

Comparative Efficacy of Diaminazine Aceturate and Isomethamidium Chloride in Rabbits Experimentally Infected With Trypanosoma Brucei Brucei

The comparative efficacy of diaminazine aceturate (DA) and isomethamedium chloride (IC) was investigated in Trypanosoma brucei brucei infected domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cunisculus). A total of eighteen rabbits were used for the study. The rabbits were divided into six groups of three each. All the rabbits in groups B – F were infected with Trypanosoma brucei brucei, while those in group A served as the negative control (uninfected and untreated group). Group B contained the infected and untreated (positive control group), Group C rabbits were infected and treated with DA at 3.5 mg/kg, Group D were infected and treated with DA 7 mg/kg, Group E contained the infected and treated with 3.5 mg/kg of DA combined with 1.0 mg/kg of IC and Group F contained the infected and treated with 7 mg/kg of DA combined with 1.0 mg/kg of IC. The weekly rectal temperature, body weight gain, packed cell volume (PCV), total erythrocyte count, haemoglobin concentration (HbC), total leucocyte count (TLC), differential leucocyte count (DLC), clinical signs and survivability and rate of parasite clearance were used to assess the efficacy of the drugs and drug combinations. The parasites cleared from groups E and F 24 hours post treatment, while in group D, it was 48 hours post treatment. The rabbits in group C and group B died within 13 – 19 and 50 – 52 days post infection (PI), respectively. Relapse was recorded in all the rabbits treated only wit DA. There was significant (p<0.05) reductions in weight, PCV, erythrocyte count, HbC and TLC. The significant (p<0.05) increase in temperature following infection were reversed by the treatments, this reversal however, was faster and lasted longer in the combined treatment groups (E and especially F) than in the single treatment group. The results of this study suggest that the combined treatments of DA and IC produced better therapeutic effect than DA only.

 
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Bilaterally Symmetrical Foramina on the Parietal Bone of the Bovine Skull: A Case Report

Bilaterally Symmetrical Foramina on the Parietal Bone of the Bovine Skull: A Case Report

Different bovine skull developmental defects have been reported with variable frequency of occurrence. We hereby report a bilaterally symmetrical parietal foramina in a processed skull meant for osteological practical at the Department of Veterinary Anatomy, University of Jos, Nigeria. The depths of each of the foramina were 4.3 cm, while the diameters were 1 cm. This appears to be the first report of such foramina in the skull of bovine in North Central Nigeria.

 
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Dystocia in a Primigravida Heifer: A Case Report

Dystocia in a Primigravida Heifer: A Case Report

This paper is a case report of a primigravida heifer found dead within the precinct of the cattle kraal of the Teaching and Research Farm of the Federal University of Technology, Akure, Nigeria. The animal was opened up to ascertain the probable root causes of its death. The underlying causes of the death of this heifer and the intervention strategies needed to prevent such an occurrence amongst our cattle population are reported here.

 
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Fisheries Status and Fishing Gears of a West African  Arid Zone Lake

Fisheries Status and Fishing Gears of a West African Arid Zone Lake

ABSTRAT: The lake Alau fisheries of the North East zone of Nigeria, Maiduguri conta ns relatively low fish species exp oited artisanal y by 365 f shers in al the samp ed stat ons. Station 4 has the highest mean number of fishers (275 ± 21.30) while station 2 has the least mean number (35 ± 9.30). A total of one thousand, eight hundred and thirty one (1831) fish specimens were sampled. The major fish species were from the families; Characidae, Cichlidae, Mochokidae, Schilbeidae, Mormyridae, Cyprinidae, Clariidae, Bagridae, Centropomidae, Polypteridae and Osteoglossidae. The most dominant family observed was the Cichlidae. The species composition recorded was 28 in all the studied stations. Heterotis niloticus was dominant with mean number of 40.4 ± 1.1.28 and percentage composi on of 11.2 %. Sex ratio of 1 male to 0.95 female was recorded for Heterot s niloticus. Multi gears fishing were observed. The percentage composition o fishing gears observed were in the order of clap net (33 %), cast net (20 %), gill net (20 %), long line (11 %), Mali trap (15 %) and seine net (1 %). There was a steady increase in number of fishers employing nets of various kinds. Lake Alau fisheries can be rated as over fished due to the pressure of fishers and the quality of the r catches.

 
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Repellence and Toxicological Activity of the Root Powder of an Invasive Alien Plant, Chromolaena Odorata (L.) (Asteraceae) Against Callosobruchus Maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Repellence and Toxicological Activity of the Root Powder of an Invasive Alien Plant, Chromolaena Odorata (L.) (Asteraceae) Against Callosobruchus Maculatus (Fab.) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae)

Although several studies have demonstrated the repellent and insecticidal activities of the leaf extracts or powder of the invasive alien plant, Chromolaena odorata against stored product pests, studies focusing on the activities of the roots are scarce. The present study investigated the repellent and insecticidal activity of C. odorata root powder against the cowpea weevil, Callosobruchus maculatus. Beetle infested cowpea grains were exposed to two concentrations (2.43 and 3.98 g) of C. odorata root powder for 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours after which percentage repellence and mortality were calculated. The root powder of C. odorata significantly repelled C. maculatus, and the repellent activity was a function of both concentration and exposure time. Following a 48-hour exposure period, 3.98 g of C. odorata root powder exhibited the highest (91%) repellent activity against C. maculatus. Mortality of C. maculatus caused by the root powder of C. odorata plants was high and also observed to be concentration and exposure time dependent. At a low concentration of 2.43 g, C. odorata root powder accounted for 100 % mortality of C. maculatus after a 72-hour exposure period. This study demonstrates the potential of C. odorata root powder in the control of C. maculatus in Nigeria, and portends an avenue for the utilization of an invasive alien weed in Nigeria.

 
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Surveillance and Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Culicine Mosquitoes in Selected Communities Utilizing Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in Kwara State, Nigeria

Surveillance and Insecticide Susceptibility Status of Culicine Mosquitoes in Selected Communities Utilizing Long-Lasting Insecticidal Nets in Kwara State, Nigeria

Vector control programs in Nigeria are mostly targeted towards reducing the burden of malaria with less emphasis placed on other debilitating vector borne diseases such as dengue, yellow fever and filariasis. This study assessed the indoor resting densities and insecticide susceptibility status of Culex and Aedes mosquitoes in selected communities utilizing long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLIN) in Kwara State, Nigeria. Pyrethrum spray collections of indoor resting Aedes and Culex mosquitoes were conducted in three communities while adults of both mosquito species reared from larval collections were exposed to pyrethroid, organochlorine, and carbamate insecticides following WHO procedure. Results showed that the higher indoor resting densities of Culex quinquefasciatus (2.5 – 3.4) collected were not significantly (p>0.05) different from the Aedes aegypti (0.3 – 1.3) in all the communities. Carbamate resistance (≤ 81 % post exposure mortalities) was observed in both Culex (Ilota and Amoyo) and Aedes populations (Gaa-Bolorunduro). Aedes in Gaa-Bolorunduro and Ilota were fully susceptible (100 % mortality) to permethrin and DDT while the Culex population showed differential susceptibility (64 – 100%) to pyrethroid and organochlorine insecticides tested. These findings show focal insecticide resistance requiring specific intervention in each community based on the evidence provided by this study. Pyrethroid resistance status of the Culex quinquefasciatus in these areas may result in access of the vectors to net occupants leading to lower LLIN utilization rates among users. Environmental management strategy in addition to the use of effective insecticide will be most probable for management of vector borne diseases in these localities.

 
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Fractionation and Identification of Bioactive Constituents From Sapium Ellipticum (Hochst) Leaf Extract

Fractionation and Identification of Bioactive Constituents From Sapium Ellipticum (Hochst) Leaf Extract

n view of antidiabetic and antioxidant properties observed in a previous study, crude ethanol leaf extract of Sapium ellipticum (SE) was fractionated using Silica gel F254 column chromatography to yield 164 fractions. Pooling together of fractions with similar thin layer chromatographic (TLC) mobility profile afforded five major fractions with masses ranging from 0.06 to 2.09 g, and retention factor (RF) ranging from 0.59 to 0.87. Bioactivity of the fractions obtained was evaluated against streptozotocin-induced oxidative stress and diabetes in adult Wistar rats. HPLC-MS analysis of active fractions in dynamic MRM mode using compound-specific parameters revealed the presence of lupeol, luteolin-7-O-glucosides, amentoflavone and α-tocopherol in S. ellipticum leaf extract. This array of phytochemicals present in the plant extract is arguably responsible for its pharmacological and medicinal properties

 
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 Evaluation of Certain Preventive Measures to Malaria Infection

Evaluation of Certain Preventive Measures to Malaria Infection

This study provides information on the infectivity rate of Plasmodium falciparum on subjects attending University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH), Ilorin, Kwara State, Nigeria. Information on the use of certain preventive measures to control malaria transmission and also the need to keep a clean environment for more healthy living is given. A total of 200 subjects attending UITH were recruited into the study. Their blood samples were collected and analyzed microscopically for the presence of the parasite. Questionnaires were collated to obtain information on the kind of control measures undertaken by the subjects to reduce the infectivity rate of the parasite. The study showed that most of the control measures adapted by some of the subjects were effective when compared to the subjects who did not use any control measures

 
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Growth Performance of Hybrid Catfish (Heterobranchus Bidorsalis (♀) X Clarias Gariepinus (♂)) at Various Stocking Densities in Varied Culture Tanks

Growth Performance of Hybrid Catfish (Heterobranchus Bidorsalis (♀) X Clarias Gariepinus (♂)) at Various Stocking Densities in Varied Culture Tanks

Stocking density effect of Heterobranchus bidorsalis (♀) and Clarias gariepinus (♂) hybrid juveniles stocked at densities of 7, 14 and 21 catfishes m-2 in three varied culture tanks (concrete, metal and plastic) were studied for 20 weeks. Total length and weight of catfish juveniles were recorded every fortnight. Plastic tanks with stocking density of 7 catfishes m-2 had the best weight gain (4.89 ± 6.81 g) while the least weight gain (1.39 ± 2.16 g) was recorded in concrete tank with stocking density of 21 catfishes m-2. There was significant difference between stocking density of 7 catfishes m-2 (4.13 ± 5.38 g) and 21 catfishes m-2 (1.82 ± 2.26 g) (P < 0.05). There was no significant difference in specific growth rate, feed efficiency and condition factor of catfishes in all culture tanks and stocking densities. The best total length of 12.23 ± 5.22 cm was obtained in concrete tank with stocking density of 7 catfish m-2. The least mean total length (9.44 ± 4.04 cm) was recorded in plastic tank with stocking density of 21 catfishes m-2. The effect of stocking density on total length was significant between stocking densities of 7 catfishes m-2 (11.85 ± 5.52 cm) and 21 catfishes m-2 (9.54 ± 4.01 cm) (P < 0.05).

 
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Haemoglobin and Potassium Polymorphism in Agro-Pastoral Goats Herd From Sudan Savannah Zone of Nigeria

Haemoglobin and Potassium Polymorphism in Agro-Pastoral Goats Herd From Sudan Savannah Zone of Nigeria

This study was conducted to determine the haemoglobin (Hb) and potassium (K) polymorphism and its distribution in agro-pastoral goats herd of Sudan savanna zone of Nigeria. Five (5l) ml of blood samples were collected each from 250 smallholder agro- pastoral goats and used for this study. The blood samples were collected by jugular venipuncture, using needle and syringe into test tube containing ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid (EDTA) as anticoagulant and samples were properly labeled. The electrophoretic analysis showed three haemoglobin genotypes HbAA, HbAB and HbBB. These genotypes were produced by 2 co-dominant alleles HbA and HbB. The genotypic frequencies were 0.47, 0.43 and 0.099 for HbAA, HbAB and HbBB, respectively. The preponderance of HbA alleles (0.683) was twice its co-dominant allele HbB (0.316). The Chi-square test revealed that the population of goats in the study area was in Hardy- Weinberg equilibrium. The gene frequencies of potassium polymorphism were 0.844 and 0.156 for high (HK) and low potassium (LK) types, respectively. The genotypic frequencies were 0.91 for HK and 0.01 for LK in the overall population. The observed frequencies of potassium types were also in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in both locations and in the overall population. thus suggesting that random mating occurred for the system under study and artificial selection has not much been practiced by the smallholder agro-pastoral goats farmers in the study area.

 
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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Created 2 years ago by Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.