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Animal Research International

Animal Research International

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Growth Performance of Mono-Sex and Mixed Sex Population of Oreochromis Niloticus Fed Similar Diet

Growth Performance of Mono-Sex and Mixed Sex Population of Oreochromis Niloticus Fed Similar Diet

ABSTRACT The growth performance of all-male, all-female and mixed sex population of Oreochromis niloticus fed similar diet was carried out. The fingerlings used in the study were of relatively similar weight ranges (24.8 g – 26.6 g) with initial mean weight of 25.7±1.3 g and initial mean total length of 3.8 ± 1.5 cm. The mean increase in weight for the all-male Oreochromis was significantly higher than the values for the all-female Oreochromis and the control (P < 0.05). The food conversion ratio (FCR) was best in the all-male Oreochromis, while that of all-female was better than that of the mixed population. There was no significant difference between the food conversion ratio of all-male Oreochromis and those of all-female and mixed population (P > 0.05). The percentage survival of allmale O. niloticus was 94 % and that of all-female was 88 %, while that of the mixed population was 74 %. All-male O. niloticus grew better than the all-female under the same exper mental conditions. It is therefore recommended that the culture of all-male O. niloticus species...

 
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Effect of  Permethrin on  Survival and Reproduction of  Bulinus Globosus Morelet 1868 and Bulinus Truncatus Audouin 1827

Effect of Permethrin on Survival and Reproduction of Bulinus Globosus Morelet 1868 and Bulinus Truncatus Audouin 1827

ABSTRACT The effects of permethrin on reproduction and survival of Bulinus globosus and Bulinus truncatus are reported. Serial dilut ons of the chemical were used in 96 h exposure tests on the molluscs, followed by postexposure maintenance in the laboratory for 8 weeks. There was significant decrease in oviposition with increase in pesticide concentration. There were significant differences between treatment-means for both egg mass and embryo counts for both species of molluscs. The F-LSD values at 5% alpha level for egg mass counts were 2.81 and 2.97 respectively for B. globosus and B. truncatus; 49.60 and 55.72 for the embryo counts in that order. The chemical did not produce an appreciable adverse effect on snail survival and longevity.

 
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The Physico-Chemical Parameters of an African Arid Zone Man Made Lake

The Physico-Chemical Parameters of an African Arid Zone Man Made Lake

ABSTRACT: Physico-chemical studies were conducted in lake Alau, a large reservoir in the northeast arid zone of Nigeria, between October, 2001 and September, 2002. Five stations were selected to determine the physico-chemical characteristics. The results showed that water temperature values ranged from 23 oC to 27 oC, depth varied from 2.85 m to 7.23 m, water current was between 19.62 cm/sec and 26.71 cm/sec, Secchi disc transparency ranged from 0.26 m to 0.42 m, pH varied from 6.59 to 7.29, conductivity was between 118.41 homs/cm and 131.45 homs/cm, free CO2 ranged from 2.55 mg/l to 3.06 mg/l, Biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) was between 4.30 mg/l and 5.31 mg/l and nitratenitrogen concentration was between 30.30 mg/l and 47.0 mg/l. There were significant differences (P < 0.05) between these parameters in relation to stations. Generally, the physico-chemical characteristics of lake Alau fall within the productive values for aquatic systems, and strongly indicate that the lake is unpolluted.

 
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Freshwater Snails of Niger-Cem, Nkalagu   Eastern Nigeria: Observations on Some  Demographic Aspects of the Schistosome-Transmitting Bulinids

Freshwater Snails of Niger-Cem, Nkalagu Eastern Nigeria: Observations on Some Demographic Aspects of the Schistosome-Transmitting Bulinids

ABSTRACT: The results of snail collections carried out in the freshwater habitats of Niger-Cem in Nkalagu from August to November 2002 are reported. Also repor ed are findings on abundance, diversity and age structure of the snails. A total of 3491 pulmonate snails were collected, belonging to 3 families: Planorbidae (3133); Lymnaeidae (199) and Ampullariidae (159). Bulinus globosus was most abundant, with mean abundance (MA = 627.66) followed by B. truncatus (MA = 294) and Biomphalaria pfeifferi, the least abundant (MA = 6.33). Analysis of the collected snails gave the following: Shannon’s index of diversity, H = 1.2889; Simpson’s index of dominance, D = 0.3642 and the number of snails per man-hour = 174.6. Age structure findings demonstrated a ‘lag’ phase in the period of peak abundance between B. globosus and B. truncatus. F ndings on the reproductive to pre-reproductive (R/P) ratios, suggest s milar demographic i strategies for the two buliniid mollusc species.

 
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The  Haematological  Profile  of  the  Sprague-Dawley  Outbred Albino Rat in Nsukka, Nigeria

The Haematological Profile of the Sprague-Dawley Outbred Albino Rat in Nsukka, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: "This study determined the haematological profiles of Sprague-Dawley (SD) outbred albino rats of both sexes and different age sets bred and maintained at the Faculty of Veterinary Medicine Laboratory Animal Unit, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria. Erythrocyte counts (EC), packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin concentration (Hb), erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total leukocyte counts (TLC), and differential leukocyte counts (DLC), were carried out following standard procedures on blood samples collected from 543 rats (267 males and 276 unbred females) during a 14-month study period. Results of the determinations for each of the haematological characteristics were compared with standard reference values generated in temperate countries for specific age sets and sexes of the rats. Findings from our study showed that there were significant differences in the normal values of some of the indices between the sexes and age sets of rats studied; also there were significant differences for some indices in some age sets and sexes between the results obtained in Nsukka Nigeria and the ones generated in temperate climatic conditions - means of the PCV, Hb, mean corpuscular volume, mean corpuscular haemoglobin and absolute numbers of the different leukocytic cellular elements of the rats studied were found to significantly differ from comparable standard reference values generated in temperate locations for specific age sets and sexes, but the means of the EC and TLC were not found to significantly differ from the temperate values. The results of the study were discussed in relation to climatic and geographical locational factors (especially temperature) as they affect the normal reference haematological values..."

 
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Phenotypic Evaluation of Growth Traits in Two Nigerian Local Chicken Genotypes

Phenotypic Evaluation of Growth Traits in Two Nigerian Local Chicken Genotypes

A study was conducted to evaluate growth traits, including body weight, body length, chest girth, leg length, shank length and shank circumference, using data obtained from 150 mixed sex birds originating from improved Nigerian local chicken (75 normal feather and 75 naked neck genotypes) of 4 – 16 weeks of age. Body weight of each genotype and at various ages was regressed on other growth traits studied. During the early growth phase (4 – 8 weeks), there were significant variations (p<0.05) between the normal feather and naked neck birds in body weight, body length, leg length and shank circumference with the normal feather having higher values. No disparity (p>0.05) was observed in the two genotypes for all traits by the 16th week of age. Strong and highly significant (p<0.001) correlation coefficients (r) were estimated between body weight and other growth traits in the normal feather (0.62 – 0.94) and naked neck (0.73 – 0.94). Apart from the 4th week of age, strong and positive correlations were obtained between body weight and the other traits (p<0.001). Significant and high coefficient of determination R2 was obtained when body weight was regressed on the other growth traits in the normal feather and naked neck population (0.89 and 0.90 respectively). The R2 was also high (>0.77) for all ages except at 4 weeks of age (0.04), indicating that most of these traits could be used to forecast body weight precisely at various ages.

 
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Haematological Changes and Evidence of Multiple Organ Involvement in Natural Babesiosis in Nigerian Dogs

Haematological Changes and Evidence of Multiple Organ Involvement in Natural Babesiosis in Nigerian Dogs

This study describes some haematological changes and the multiple organ damage observed in Nigerian dogs that died of canine babesiosis. 17 infected dogs with babesiosis, diagnosed by the detection of parasites in Giemsa stained thin blood smears and another 17 apparently healthy large breeds of dogs presented at the University of Ibadan Veterinary Teaching Hospital were enrolled in this study. Infected dogs were further sub-divided into the uncomplicated and complicated groups based on disease manifestations, while the full blood count and erythrocyte morphology were done using standard techniques. Tissue samples (brain, heart, lungs, kidneys, spleen and liver) were taken from five dogs that died of natural canine babesiosis and histopathological processed using standard techniques. Babesia negative dogs had lower neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio when compared with Babesia positive dogs. Complicated groups had higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio. Anisocytosis was the commonest encountered morphological abnormality. All of the five dogs used for the histopathological study had multiple organ lesions that involved the lungs 3(60 %), kidney 2(40 %), heart 2(40 %), brain 1(20 %), spleen 2(40 %) and liver 5(100 %). In conclusion, this study showed that neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio is a good diagnostic index to detect complications in babesiosis and also that multiple organ dysfunction is a major phenomenon in the pathophysiology of babesiosis in Nigerian dogs.

 
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Blood Metabolites of Intensively Reared Gravid West African Dwarf Goats Fed Pulverized Biofibre Wastes Based Diets

Blood Metabolites of Intensively Reared Gravid West African Dwarf Goats Fed Pulverized Biofibre Wastes Based Diets

Under intensive management, the haematological and some biochemical parameters were studied using twelve (12) West African dwarf (WAD) goats weighing 11.90 – 13.05 kg. Does were fed three dietary treatments; pulverized maize-cob/cassava peel (PMC/CsP), pulverized maize-cob/brewers’ grain (PMC/BG) and pulverized maize-cob/cassava peel/brewers’ grain (PMC/CsP/BG) such that four individually housed animals, each serving as a replicate. Animals were synchronized using prostaglandin (PGF2α) at 1 ml/10 kg intramuscularly to bring all the animals to oestrus and were then exposed to a proven buck for mating after 24 hour of administration. Prior to synchronization of the animals, three animals from each treatment were randomly selected and blood collected via the jugular vein into different sterilized specimen bottles with or without anti-coagulant (EDTA) for haematological and serum biochemical evaluations respectively. This was repeated at 20 weeks of gestation. The completely randomized design was adopted. Results showed that at the non-gravid and gravid stages, goats on PMC/BG had significantly higher (p<0.05) packed cell volume (PCV), haemoglobin (Hb), mean cell volume (MCV) and mean cell haemoglobin (MCH), while goats on PMC/CsP/BG had significantly increased (p<0.05) white blood cell (WBC). Total proteins, urea, creatinine and alanine amino transferase (ALT) did not show significant difference (p>0.05) in the non-gravid and gravid goats, while aspartate amino transferase (AST) was significantly higher (p<0.05) in the non-gravid goats fed PMC/BG (90.01 iu/l). It can therefore be concluded that diets used in this study did not show adverse implications on the health of the animals hence its suitability as alternative feed source for gravid goats.

 
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Efficacy of Ogiri Produced From Mesquite Seed as Bait in Trapping of Insects in a Fallow Plot in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

Efficacy of Ogiri Produced From Mesquite Seed as Bait in Trapping of Insects in a Fallow Plot in Awka, Anambra State, Nigeria

An investigation was made on the insect fauna in a fallow plot at the temporary site of Nnamdi Azikiwe University, Awka using pitfall traps. The study was carried out for a period of seven weeks in the months of June and July 2013. The pitfall traps were baited using Ogiri (food condiment) made from mesquite seed. A total of 193 adult insects were captured.

 
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Comparative Evaluation of the Influence of Species, Age and Sex on Carcass Characteristics of Camels, Cattle, Sheep and Goats in Sahel Environment

Comparative Evaluation of the Influence of Species, Age and Sex on Carcass Characteristics of Camels, Cattle, Sheep and Goats in Sahel Environment

This study, comparative evaluation of sources of supply of edible meat from camel with cattle, sheep and goats in Sahel environment was conducted at Zinder Abattoir in Niger Republic. The factors considered were species, sex and age. Species significantly influenced (p˂0.01) the meat evaluation indices with camel being highest in most of the meat indices. Cattle yielded highest head and skin weights. Goat yielded highest dressing percentage. The sheep had no superiority in any index. Sex of the animal had no significant effect (p>0.05) on meat evaluation indices in camel and goats. It significantly affected (p<0.05; 0.01) the indices in cattle and sheep; except for hind quarter weights and edible offals in sheep (p>0.05). Age of the animals significantly (p<0.01) affected the meat evaluation indices in camel, cattle and sheep. It only significantly affected (p<0.05; 0.01) hind quarter weight, legs weight and edible offals in goats. The correlation observed among the meat evaluation indices showed some variable correlated relationship (p<0.05 – 0.01; r = 0.25 – 0.97 and r = 0.29 – 0.93) and (p> 0.05; r = -0.03 – 0.24 and r = 0.00 – 0.20). In conclusion, camel and ruminants meat productive performance can be assessed through their respective meat indices. Camels could serve as good sources of meat supply in the arid environment to supply the needed animal protein to the populace.

 
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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Created 2 years ago by Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.