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Animal Research International

Animal Research International

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Comparison of Clinical, Parasitological and Serological Diagnostic Methods for the Definitive Diagnosis of Onchocerciasis in Nsukka Senatorial Zone

Comparison of Clinical, Parasitological and Serological Diagnostic Methods for the Definitive Diagnosis of Onchocerciasis in Nsukka Senatorial Zone

ABSTRACT Clinical, parasitological and serological diagnostic methods were compared for de initive diagnosis of human onchocerciasis in three endemic communities o Nkpologu, Ukpabi and Obimo; located at d f ering distances from the bank of Adada river in Nsukka senatorial zone of Enugu State, Nigeria. The results revealed that 43.98%, 2.78%, 57.60% and 76.55% o the total number o volunteers tested were positive by most common and rare clinical symptoms, skin biopsy and Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) respectively. O those seropositive, 86.02% had microfilariae in their skin. Similarly, 67.28% and 91 91% o those who were pos tive by ELISA and skin biopsy respective y displayed onchocercal nodules either on the head trunk, groin, laps or near the knee. However, 96.76% of those with nodules had microfilariae in their skin. The results further showed that the inc dence o onchocerciasis and worm burden in the three communities vary inversely with their respective d s ances from the river. Considering the relative significance of these methods in the diagnosis of onchocerciasis, we recommend the use o a combination of the most common clinical manifestations, skin biopsy and ELISA in the diagnosis of onchocerciasis, at least for . l , f epidemiological studies, until a single definitive diagnostic method is developed.

 
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The Biology of the West  African Clariid,  Clarias Macromystax Gunther, 1864  (Osteichthyes: Clariidae) in a Nigerian River Basin

The Biology of the West African Clariid, Clarias Macromystax Gunther, 1864 (Osteichthyes: Clariidae) in a Nigerian River Basin

ABSTRACT The biology of the West African c ariid C arias macromystax, was studied in Anambra river basin, Nigeria. The c ariid occurred more abundantly and frequently in forest f oodp a n ponds than in other habitats, and was totally absent in the river systems Length ranged rom 9.7 to 30.2 cm TL and weight rom 9 to 168 g females were heavier, but not longer, than males. The b-values (2.4190-2.5209) of the total length-weight relationships exhibited negative allometric function. Mean relative condition, K l . ; i i n l i f , was better in females than males but showed a def nite cycle in both sexes. Over 50% of both sexes were mature at 15.1-20.0 cm TL in their f rst year of life. Fecundity ranged from 2.136 x 103 to 37.250 x 103 (mean 14.942 x 103 ± 11.248 x 103) and correlated highly and positively with length, body weight and ovary weight. Ovary weight was the best predictor of fecundity Communal spawning involving C. macromystax and C. agboyiens s occurred Feeding was carried out throughout the day with higher feeding intensity a night. Food of primary importance were Car dina niloticus, Sudanonautes africanus Odonata naiad terrestrial Orthoptera, formicoid Hymenoptera, Dytiscidae, Oreochromis niloticus, Parachanna obscura, fruits and seeds plant detritus and mud. Diet breadth was season-dependent. The clariid fed by foraging, shoveling and sur ace eeding E. clarias, Procamallanus laevichonchus and a larval spiruroid paras tized various organs...

 
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Schistosomiasis Infection in Primary Schools in Agulu Town of Anambra State, Nigeria

Schistosomiasis Infection in Primary Schools in Agulu Town of Anambra State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT Investigation was made to reveal the state and level of Schistosomiasis haematobuim infection in the whole of Agulu town in Anaocha local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria where a lake (Agulu lake) is implicated in the transmission of the disease. Urine sample was collected from 3029 children for Schistosoma egg identification. This was used to calculate the level of infection in the different schools. Schistosomiasis prevalence was highest (55.2%) in Umuowelle primary school and lowest (4.1%) in Obeagu primary school. Males had higher infection rate than females in the endemic schools. In Umuowelle, Community and Nneogidi primary schools, infection rates in males were 36.4%, 13.3% 11.3% respectively while infection rates in females were 25.2%, 11.7% and 6.8% respectively. However, the sex differences were not statistically significant at 5% confidence level (t-test = 2.179, df = 12). Infection levels investigated in all the schools , revealed that the age group 10-14 years recorded the highest level while 0- 4 years had the lowest. There was also shifts in peaks of infection within the var ous age groups, for instance, in the 10 - 14 years age group of Ifiteani primary school, infection peak was in 14 years while in Nneogidi primary school it was in 13 year old pupils.

 
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Common Leg Aliment of Poultry in Plateau State, Nigeria

Common Leg Aliment of Poultry in Plateau State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: A study was carried out to investigate the occurrence and causes of leg ailment in poultry through questionnaire survey and farm visitation. Post mortem and laboratory examination were also conducted. The results showed that different species of poultry were affected with various types of leg ailments; out of which local chickens had the highest incidence 175(30.49 %), followed by broilers and commercial laying chickens 153(26.67 %) and least in ostrich 16(6.75 %). Swollen legs were recorded thus: local chickens 65(36.72 %), commercial layer chicken 51(28.81 %) and broilers 33(18.64 %). Incoordinat on, another common leg ailment were observed in broilers 40(33.33%), layer chickens 39(32.50 %), local chickens 24(20.0 %), and turkeys 4(14.81 %). Physical injuries due to trauma, burns, trampling (smothering) and accidents were recorded in broilers 28(30.77 %), commercial laying chickens 25(27.47 %), local chickens 21(23.08 %), cockerels 17(18.68 %), guinea fowls 15(39.47 %) and ostriches 2(5.26 %). Curled toes, mange, Newcastle disease, Mareks disease and Clostridia infections resulting in leg ailments were also observed

 
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Effect of  Age on Immune  Response of Trypanosome-Infected Rats (Rattus Rattus) Fed Dietary Vitamin E and Selenium

Effect of Age on Immune Response of Trypanosome-Infected Rats (Rattus Rattus) Fed Dietary Vitamin E and Selenium

ABSTRACT: This study was done to determine the combined effects of dietary supplementation of vitamin E and selenium on age-dependent immune response of Trypanosoma congolenseinfected white rats (Rattus rattus, whiskers breed). Sixty rats were used in the study, 30 20-day old (newly weaned) rats and 30 90-day old (adult) rats. Four groups of rats with five rats of identical age per group were kept in w re-rat-cages. The cages were labeled G to J. Cage G contained adult rats (Control 1), while cage H contained newly weaned rats (Control 2). Cage I contained adult rats fed diet containing selenium and vitamin E (nutrient), while cage J contained new y weaned rats also fed diets containing selenium and vitamin E. Each treatment was replicated three times. Longevity (days of survival) and differential leucocyte counts which are functions of immune response of the rats upon infection with T. congolense were determined. At the end of the study, the longevity and differential leucocyte counts were analysed for significant differences using analysis of variance (ANOVA) and any differences were partitioned with the least l i significant difference (LSD) and the Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT). The results revealed that there was no significant difference in longevity (P > 0.05) between the two control groups (newly weaned and adult rats) but there were significant differences between the longevity of each control group and the longevities of the rats given comb ned dietary supplementation of the nutrients. Longevity of new y weaned and adult rats given dietary supplementation of selenium and vitamin E were not different (P < 0.05). These results implied that age of the rats was not a contributory factor in improved immune response of the trypanosome-infected rats fed the combined dietary supplementation of selenium and vitamin E...

 
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Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Ozuitem, Bende Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Ozuitem, Bende Local Government Area of Abia State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT: Studies on the prevalence of urinary Schistosomiasis were carried out in Ozuitem, Bende LGA between May and September, 1998. Urine collections from villagers were examined using centrifuge and filtration technique. A total of 1173 urine samples were collected and examined, of which 496 (42.3%) were positive for Schistosomiasis. Visible haematuria was their predominant presenting symptom. Of the total, 370 (74.6 %) were excreting under 100 eggs per 10 ml urine sample with 250 (75.0 %) males and 120 (72.6 %) females, while 3(0.6 %) were excreting more than 500 eggs in 10 ml of urine samples with 2(0.6 %) males and 1(0.6 %) females. A chi square analysis showed that intensity of infection and frequency of water contact were significantly higher in persons under 20 years of age than in persons 20 years and above (P < 0.05). Of the 496 infected persons, 333 (67.1 %) were males, while 163 (32.9 %) were females. Overall peak infection (59.4 %) occurred in the 11-20 years age group. Infection varied significantly . among different villages, ages and sex in the study area (P < 0.01). Schistosoma intermediate host snails collected in routine malacological survey include Bulinus globosus, B forskalii, B truncatus, Lymnaea natalensis and Melanoides tuberculata. Only B. globosus was found to shed furcocercous cercariae believed to be human schistosomes...

 
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Embryonic Development in  Clarias Gariepinus  (Buchell, 1822) Under Laboratory Conditions

Embryonic Development in Clarias Gariepinus (Buchell, 1822) Under Laboratory Conditions

ABSTRACT: The embryonic development in Clarias gariepinus was studied under laboratory conditions. The development stages of eggs starting from first cleavage to hatching were examined microscopically. The accurate timing and detailed description of each stage were recorded. Photomicrograph of important stages, segmentation, b astulation, differentiation of embryo and hatching, was taken. The result shows that the b astodisc (polar cap) appeared 35±1 minutes after fertilization. The first cleavage dividing the blastodisc into two b astomeres occurred 15±0.5 minutes after the polar cap formation. The larva emerged from the egg case 22 hours after fertilization at a water temperature of 25.1±1.5 l l OC. This result will assist in better management of C. gariepinus, enhance their survival to fry and increase the supply of fingerlings in Nigeria.

 
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Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of  Vernonia  Amygdalina  on Blood Glucose and Triglyceride Levels of Alloxan–Induced Diabetic Rats (Rattus Rattus)

Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Vernonia Amygdalina on Blood Glucose and Triglyceride Levels of Alloxan–Induced Diabetic Rats (Rattus Rattus)

ABSTRACT The effect of Vernonia amygdalina aqueous leaf extract on serum glucose and triglyceride level of diabetic rats were investigated. The aqueous extract was administered to alloxan –diabetic rats. The b ood glucose and serum triglyceride levels were estimated at time intervals post oral administration of the extract (80 mg/kg). The extract caused significant (P<0.05) and progressive time dependent reduction of blood glucose and serum triglyceride levels in both normoglyceamic and alloxan-induced diabetic rats, with similar time course of action. In conclusion, the significant reduction in b ood glucose and serum triglyceride level observed in this study may help in alleviating some of the complications associated with diabetic conditions.

 
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Cytotoxicity of Fractions of  Pistia Stratiotes  L. on Larvae of  Culex Mosquito and A. Salina

Cytotoxicity of Fractions of Pistia Stratiotes L. on Larvae of Culex Mosquito and A. Salina

ABSTRACT: Crude chloroform and aqueous extracts of the duckweed, Pistia stratiotes L., were bioassayed at various concentrations for larvicidal activities against larvae of Culex mosquito and Artemia salina (brine shrimp). The crude (LC50 = 159.50 µg/ml) and chloroform extracts (LC50 = 0.0909 µg/ml) at 200 µg/ml) exerted mortality at 40 µg/ml of 16.67 % and 90.0 % respectively on Culex mosquito larvae, while the aqueous extract (LC50 = >1000 2524.22 r µg/ml, resulted in 3.33 % mortality. The crude (LC50 = µg/ml) was moderately toxic on A. salina larvae at 1000 µg/ml which killed 30.00 % of the test organisms. Whereas the chloroform extract showed lower activity on b ine shrimp larvae (3.3 % mortality, LC 50 > 1000 µg/ml). The aqueous extract demonstrated no activity on brine shrimp at all concentrations tested. The study showed that the chloroform extract of P. stratiotes selectively exerts cytotoxic effect on Culex mosquito larvae resulting in high mortality with LC50 = 0.0909 shrimp larvae at LC50 >1000 µg/ml than on the brine µg/ml. It is therefore recommended that these extracts of P. stratiotes L. should be tested for adulticidal and/or mosquitocidal activity as well as toxicity in higher animals up to man. This may yield a more base line data valuable for use in the development of a microbially active chloroform fraction of the plant for possible use in modern medicine..

 
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The  Effects  of  Preservation  Methods  on Proximate  Composition, Insect Infestation  and  Organoleptic  Properties  of  Heterobranchus  Longifilis,  Heterotis Niloticus and Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus

The Effects of Preservation Methods on Proximate Composition, Insect Infestation and Organoleptic Properties of Heterobranchus Longifilis, Heterotis Niloticus and Chrysichthys Nigrodigitatus

ABSTRACT: A study to evaluate the effects of insecticide, Actellic 25 EC and salt solutions on proximate composition, preservation of organoleptic properties and reduction of insect infestation on traditionally smoked dried fish samples was carried out using three freshwater fishes, Heterobranchus longifilis, Heterotis niloticus and Chrysichthys nigrodigitatus. The various dehydration and smoking treatments had effect on the proximate composition. The highest moisture contents were recorded in the batch I (fresh) fish pieces, while the lowest moisture content occurred amongst the Actellic dehydrated and smoked dried fish pieces. The fat content of fish pieces dehydrated and smoked dried showed that the non dehydrated and non smoked dried fish pieces (fresh fish) had the highest fat content. The highest fibre content was recorded in the batch I (fresh fish) fish species and the lowest was recorded among the fish pieces dehydrated in salt solution before smoke drying. The protein content of fish pieces variously dehydrated and smoked dried revealed that the Actellic 25 EC dehydrated smoked dried fish pieces had the highest protein content while the lowest protein contents were recorded among the fresh fish pieces not dehydrated either in salt and/or Actellic 25 EC solutions. The highest carbohydrate content was recorded in the batch I (fresh fish) while the lowest occurred among Actellic 25 EC dehydrated smoked dried fish pieces. Two insects, Dermestes sp and Necrobia sp were identified to attack dehydrated and smoked dried fishes. The smoked dried fishes had comparatively higher insect attack than the salted and / or Actellic dehydrated smoked dried fish pieces. Fish pieces preserved with Actellic had the overall best organole

 
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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Created 2 years ago by Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.