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Animal Research International

Animal Research International

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Influence of Milking Frequency  on Lactation Characteristics of Red Sokoto Goats

Influence of Milking Frequency on Lactation Characteristics of Red Sokoto Goats

ABSTRACT The study was carried out to determine the consequences of milking frequency on total yield, average-daily yield, peak day, flow rate, dairy merit and persistency in Red Sokoto goats. Thirty lactating does were divided into three categories on milking frequencies, once a day, trice a day and thrice a day milking of 10 animals each. All the does were at their third lactation and were hand milked for a period of 120 days postpartum. Over the 120 days lactation period, total yie d, average daily yield, peak yield, peak day, flow rate, dairy merit and persistency were 55.5±2.95 kg, 0.466±0.025 kg, 0.791±0.042 kg, 33.8±4.01 d, 3.7±0.25 g/d, 10.6±0.21 % and 96.1±7.92 %. Milking frequency significantly (P<0.05) influenced total yield, average daily yield, peak yield, and milk flow rate, but not peak day, dairy merit and persistency. Milk yield characteristics increased with milking frequency, but at a decreasing flow rate. In Red Sokoto goats milking frequency affected milk yield characteristics but not dairy merit and persistency. The high lactation persistency of these goats was an indication of their ability to maintain milk production throughout lactation.

 
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Phenotypic Characteristics of the African Giant  Snail, Archachatina Marginata Swainson

Phenotypic Characteristics of the African Giant Snail, Archachatina Marginata Swainson

ABSTRACT: Observations were made on ‘gigantism’ and alb nism in the giant snail, Archachatina marginata. Gigantic snails were initially about twice the size of normal snails of same age. However this growth superiority of ‘gigantic’ snails apparently slowed down with age. Albinism in the snails was expressed in form of creamy-white bodies instead of the normally brownish colour. Albino snails however retained normal shell colouration. All offspring of these alb nos maintained these same characteristics. There was no difference in mortality rates of alb no and normal snails. ‘Gigantism’ and alb nism have serious implications for commercial snail farming.

 
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Effect of  Feeding  Hordeum Jabatum  Hay  Supplemented With Leucaena Leucocephala on Nutrient Digestibility in Sheep

Effect of Feeding Hordeum Jabatum Hay Supplemented With Leucaena Leucocephala on Nutrient Digestibility in Sheep

ABSTRACT The fermentation profiles and nutrient digestibility of Leucaena leucocephala as a supplement to Hordeum jabatum hay was investigated using twelve castrated sheep averaging 24.4 ± 2.2 kg body weight (BW). Six of the sheep were fistulated at the rumen and used for ruminal pH, ammonia and volatile fatty acid determination in rumen fluid. Dried leaves of Leucaena leucocephala were offered as supplement at two levels, 25% (diet 2) and 50% (diet 3) of dry matter intake (DMI), replacing Hordeum jabatum hay diet. The basal hay diet without supplementation was diet 1. Rumen l quor was sampled one hour before, and one, three and five hours after the morning feeding. The sheep were subjected to digestibility trial. Sheep on diet 3 had higher (P<0.05) ruminal pH than sheep on diets 1 and 2, respectively. The ruminal ammonia concentration of sheep on diet 2 was superior (P<0.05) to those on diet 1 but not with diet 3. Diet 1 had superior i (P<0.05) volatile fatty acid concentration than diets 2 and 3, respectively. There were no differences (P>0.05) in the dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre and hemicellulose intake among treatments. There were however, significant (P<0.05) differences in the digestibility of nutrients among treatments. It was concluded that dried leaves of Leucaena leucocephala has a forage potential for livestock farmers. It can be classified as a plant of moderate fodder value.

 
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Length-Weight Relationship and Condition of Freshwater Shrimps  Atya Gabonensis  and  Macrobrachium  Felicinium  From the Mu River, Makurdi, Nigeria

Length-Weight Relationship and Condition of Freshwater Shrimps Atya Gabonensis and Macrobrachium Felicinium From the Mu River, Makurdi, Nigeria

ABSTRACT Length-weight parameters (a and b) of the equation: W = aLb were estimated for two freshwater shrimp species Atya gabonensis and Macrobrachium felicinium caught bimonthly from October 2001 to March 2002 using brush traps in the Mu river. The mean b values were 2.989 ± 0.328 and 3.003 ± 0.318 for A. gabonensis and M. felicinium respectively. The values did not differ significantly (P < 0.05) from 3, showing that their growths were isometric M. felicinium where in better condition than A. gabonensis.

 
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Endemicity of Malaria Among Primary School Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

Endemicity of Malaria Among Primary School Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT A study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of malaria among primary school children in Ebonyi State. The degree of malaria parasite, infection and species of the parasite isolated were used to determine the level of endemicity of the disease. Out of one thousand and two hundred (1,200) primary schoo children aged between 5 –16 years sampled, the prevalence rate of 40.08 % was recorded. The species of the parasite associated with the disease was Plasmodium falciparum. It was observed that the rate of malaria parasitaemia was higher in younger (aged 5-10 years) than those of older (aged 11-16 years) children. A X l 2-test conducted on the infection rate according to ages of the pupils showed significant difference between the age groups indicating that infection was age dependent (P < O.O5) . Greater number of males (243) than females (238) were infected but the infection rate according to sex was found not to be significant and therefore not sex dependent (P > 0.05). Among the Local Government Areas, Ivo had the highest prevalence rate. This was followed by Ishielu and Abakaliki local government areas of Ebonyi State. The results showed that malaria is endemic in the state and a major health problem for school children. The possible effect on academic performance was...

 
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Relationships Between Physical Body Traits of  the Grasscutter (Rodentia: Thryonomyidae)  in Akpaka Forest Reserve, Onitsha

Relationships Between Physical Body Traits of the Grasscutter (Rodentia: Thryonomyidae) in Akpaka Forest Reserve, Onitsha

ABSTRACT: Physical body traits of nine grasscutters (Thryonomys swinderianus Temminck) were characterized using body weights (BW), body length (BL), heart girth (HG), and height-at-withers (H). Simple linear correlation matrix showed high, positive and significant values among the parameters studied (P < 0.01). The highest coeffic ent was obtained for body weight and body length (r = 0.9956). The very high associations for body length and heart girth (r = 0.9821) and between body length and height (r = 0.9905) indicate that frame size and absolute height were complementary. Selection for increased measurement in any of the parameter would mean positive significant influence on the other and would lead to increased skeletal stature with concomitant increases in other absolute body measurements. Regression equations from this study could be used to estimate live body weights o grasscutters aged between 2 -10 months.

 
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Valuation of Tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) Seed Meal as a Dietary Carbohydrate for the Production  of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus (L)

Valuation of Tamarind (Tamarindus Indica) Seed Meal as a Dietary Carbohydrate for the Production of Nile Tilapia Oreochromis Niloticus (L)

ABSTRACT A feeding study was conducted to assess the value o Tamarind, Tamar ndus indica seed mea as d etary carbohydrate in the d ets of Nile Tilapia, Oreochromis nilot cus. Tamarind seeds were used to rep ace maize at 0, 20 40, 60, 80, 100 % substitution levels for treatments 1 to 6. Growth trial was conducted in outdoor concrete tanks for 56 days. The fishes were fed at 4 % body weight twice daily. There were no significant variations in the mean weight gain, specific growth rate (SGR), food convers on ratio (FCR) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) (p >0.05). The apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) of protein and energy of the fishes fed d ets 1 – 6 were similar (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in the blood total erythrocyte counts, (TEC), pack cell volume (PCV) and red b ood cells count (RBC) (p >0.05). Based on the findings, complete replacement of maize with tamarind seed meal in the diets of O. niloticus is recommended.

 
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Sex Discrimination  Among Four Mormyrid Species of  Anambra River System Nigeria

Sex Discrimination Among Four Mormyrid Species of Anambra River System Nigeria

ABSTRACT: Sex discriminating characters of four mormyrid species caught from Anambra river basin, Nigeria were investigated. Sexual dimorphism occurred in only one trans ormed character – dorsal fin base length and in four raw morphometric characters namely total length, standard length, dorsal fin base length and anal fin base length. These characters are recommended as key characters in mormyrid taxonomy.

 
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Lipid Composition of Two Marine Fishes  –  Scomber Scombrus  and Trachurus Trachurus

Lipid Composition of Two Marine Fishes – Scomber Scombrus and Trachurus Trachurus

ABSTRACT Lipids from two species of marine fish – Scomber scombrus and Trachurus trachurus were investigated. Fish oil from Trachurus trachurus had higher oil yield than that of Scomber scombrus. The lipids contain high levels of triacylglycerol 228 – 250 mg%, cholesterol 160 – 235 mg%, and phospholipid 2.2 – 2.4 mg%. Saponification of the different oils yielded saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, such as palmltic, oleic linoleic acids. Hexane and methanol were found effective solvents for separation of fatty acids from the fish oil.

 
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Factors Affecting Growth and Body Measurements of the Grasscutter (Rodentia: Thryonomyidae)

Factors Affecting Growth and Body Measurements of the Grasscutter (Rodentia: Thryonomyidae)

ABSTRACT: Overall mean body weights (0.138 ± 0.06 and 0.513 ± 0.03 kg), body lengths (17.24 ± 0.30 and 21.68 ± 0.65 cm), heart girths (12.57 ± 0.18 and 16.83 ± 0.90 cm), and heightat-withers (7.39 ± 0.14 and 9.86 ± 0.52 cm) of the grasscutter (Thryonomys swinderianus Temminck) at b rth and 60 days of age, respectively, were recorded. Litter size and sex significantly influenced body weight and linear body measurements in the grasscutter. Mean birth weight (0.173 ± 0.02 kg) of rats born singles was significantly different from that of twin births (0.135 ± 0.08 kg) and triplets (0.135 ± 0.09 kg) (P < 0.05). Male grasscutters with a mean birth weight of 0.148 ± 0.01 kg were heavier (P < 0.05) than the females, which weighed 0.128 ± 0.02 kg. Average daily weight gain for the first 60 days for males (0.007 kg/d) was significantly different from that of females (0.005 kg/d) (P < 0.05). Parity had no significant effect on the rat’s birth weight, weight at 60 days of age, and average daily weight gain for the first 60 days. Litter size, sex and i parity did not have significant effect on the linear body measurements of the grasscutter at b rth (P > 0.05). However litter size and sex had significant influence on body length and heart girth of the grasscutter at 60 days of age (P < 0.05). At 60 days the mean body length (23 ± 0.28 cm) and heart girth (18.13 ± 0.23 cm) of rats born singles were longer and larger than those of twins (21.66 ± 0.89 and 16.82 ± 0.76 cm) and triplets (21.59 ± 0.96 and 16.71 ± 0.80). Males also have longer body length and larger heart girth than females at that age.

 
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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Created 2 years ago by Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.