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Animal Research International

Animal Research International

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Diagnosis of Nasal Myiasis in the West African Dwarf (Wad) Sheep at Umudike, Abia State, South-Eastern Nigeria

Diagnosis of Nasal Myiasis in the West African Dwarf (Wad) Sheep at Umudike, Abia State, South-Eastern Nigeria

A West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep with typical symptoms of nasal myiasis was procured on 9th i i l December, 2008 by the Department of Microbiology and Parasitology at the College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM), Michael Okpara University of Agriculture Umudike (MOUAU) in Abia State, south-eastern Nigeria for the purpose of teaching the subject, ‘nasal myiasis’, to para-clinical students ofveterinary entomology. A sagittal secton of the head of the suspected sheep was carried out for post mortem examination, whereupon two mature maggots, identified as the third stage larvae of the sheep nostril fly Oestrus ovis, were observed in the ventral meatus. The preserved specimens will help to expand the students’ knowledge of the key identfication features of the larva of Oestrus ovis, as well as the relative positions of the anatomical organs thatmay be affected by thedeveloping larvae leadingto pathological conditions which manifest as clinica symptoms of nasal myiasis in the sheep.

 
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Survey of Ketosis and Hypoproteinaemia in Slaughtered Cattle in the Sahel Region of Nigeria

Survey of Ketosis and Hypoproteinaemia in Slaughtered Cattle in the Sahel Region of Nigeria

Serum ketone and total protein concentrations of 966 cattle slaughtered at the metropolitan abattoir, Maiduguri, Nigera, were estimated durng the dry and rainy months of the year. None of the sera had a titrable ketone concentration. Serum total protein (STP) concentration of <60.0 g/L,considered as hypoproteinaemia, was more frequent in the dry than rainy period. The prevalence rates of hypoproteinaemia in the dry and rainy periods were 91.1 and 17 percents respectively The mean STP concentration for all the cattle was 59.9 ± 289 g/L. Thus, the poor quality o herbage in the dry season may be responsible for undernutrition among the cattle population, reflected by hypoproteinaemia withou ketosis.

 
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Retrospective Analysis of Disease Conditions Among Reproductive Domestic Ruminants in Sokoto, Nigeria

Retrospective Analysis of Disease Conditions Among Reproductive Domestic Ruminants in Sokoto, Nigeria

A fteen-year (1991 – 2005) study of reproductve cases in animals presented to the Usmanu Danfodio University Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Sokoto, were analyzed based on species, disease condition and sex using clinical case files of Sheep, goat and cattle. Within the study period a total of 88 reproductive cases were handed out of which 53 (57.95 %) occurred in sheep, 32(36.36 %) goat and 5(5.68 %) cattle. Dystocia 23(26.13 %), Pregnancy toxaemia 11(12.50 %), mastitis 9(10.23 %), castraton 5(5.68 %) and orchitis 3(3.41 %) were the diseases recorded. Reproductive cases were higher in females 77(87.5 %) than inmales 11(125 %). From the studyreproductive cases were most prevalent in sheep than in goats and cattle.

 
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Distribution and Seasonal Abundance of Anopheline Mosquito Species in Nguru, Yobe State, North-Eastern Nigeria

Distribution and Seasonal Abundance of Anopheline Mosquito Species in Nguru, Yobe State, North-Eastern Nigeria

The essence of this study was to identify Anopheles mosquito species in Nguru, Yobe State and to determine their distribution and relative abundance in the months of the year. Insecticide and aspirator were used to collect mosqutoes in human dwellngs and preserved in 2% formalin for identcation using dissectng microscope. Anopheles gambiae (1145); Anopheles funestus (1220) and Anopheles arabiensis (827) were the major anopheline species prevalent in the town. The results obtained showed that An. gambiae were mostly abundant in wet months, followed by Anopheles funestus at the end of the rainy season, and Anopheles arabiensis in drier months. Based on the observation of Anopheles monthly distributon and supported data on malaria prevalence, the three species seem to complement one another and sustain the endemcity of malaria in the town. The study demonstrates the occurrence of malaria vectors all year round due to the favourable environmental conditions associated with Nigerian arid zone.

 
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Distribution and Seasonal Abundance of Anopheline Mosquito Species in Nguru, Yobe State, North-Eastern Nigeria

Distribution and Seasonal Abundance of Anopheline Mosquito Species in Nguru, Yobe State, North-Eastern Nigeria

The essence of this study was to identify Anopheles mosquito species in Nguru, Yobe State and to determine their distribution and relative abundance in the months of the year. Insecticide and aspirator were used to collect mosqutoes in human dwellngs and preserved in 2% formalin for identcation using dissectng microscope. Anopheles gambiae (1145); Anopheles funestus (1220) and Anopheles arabiensis (827) were the major anopheline species prevalent in the town. The results obtained showed that An. gambiae were mostly abundant in wet months, followed by Anopheles funestus at the end of the rainy season, and Anopheles arabiensis in drier months. Based on the observation of Anopheles monthly distributon and supported data on malaria prevalence, the three species seem to complement one another and sustain the endemcity of malaria in the town. The study demonstrates the occurrence of malaria vectors all year round due to the favourable environmental conditions associated with Nigerian arid zone.

 
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Morphological Features of Fetal and Adult Adrenal Glands in Kano Brown Goats (Capra Hircus)

Morphological Features of Fetal and Adult Adrenal Glands in Kano Brown Goats (Capra Hircus)

Gross and histomorphological features of fetal and adult adrenals obtained from slaughtered Kanobrown goats at Obollo Afor and Nsukka abattoirs were studied. The specimens were divded into groups A – D for gestation day (GD) 86-102, 103-124, 125 – 146 and adults respectvely. The mass of the adrenals increased significantly with age. Microscopically, GD 86 – 102 adrenals comprised outer capsule, definitive zone (DZ), fetal zone (FZ) and medulla. By GD 103 – 124 they exhibited transitional zone with less dense packed cells when compared with outer defnitive zone. Full termadrenals had definitive cortex with zona granulosa at the early formative stage. The adult adrenals exhibited structures with typical zonation of the cortex. The width of DC increased while that of FZ decreased sgnificantly (P < 0.01) with increasing age of the fetuses. These results suggest that the adrenals of Kano

 
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Nutrient Composition of Cereal Based Oral Rehydration Solutions for Management of Diarrhoea in Infants

Nutrient Composition of Cereal Based Oral Rehydration Solutions for Management of Diarrhoea in Infants

This study evaluated the nutrient composition of two cereal, millet and sorghum, based oral rehydration solutions. The test solutions were made from 50g of millet and sorghum each. The nutrient composition of the solution was determined using proximate analysis. The result showed that the mothers were aware of the salt sugar oral rehydration solution. However 57.7% did not know the proportion of the sugar and salt used in the preparation. These mothers had very little knowledge of any other substitute used in diarrhoea treatment. Most of the respondents (753%) consumed millet or sorghum. Sixty five percent gave millet or sorghum to their children as either a drink or porridge. The result of the sensory evaluation showed that the sorghum oral rehydration solution was more acceptable than the millet solution. The proximate analysis showed that the millet oral rehydration solution provided 170.2kcal of energy and 8.76% protein per litre, 0.8mg potassium per 100gand22mgofsodum per 100g. The sorghum oral rehydration soluton provided170.2kcal of energy and 8.76% protein per ltre, sodum 32mg/100g and potassium 1.4mg/100g.

 
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Comparative Study of Breakfast Intake Among School Children in Urban and Rural Areas of Nsukka

Comparative Study of Breakfast Intake Among School Children in Urban and Rural Areas of Nsukka

A comparative study of the breakfast intake of school children between the ages of 10-12yeras in Nsukka urban and rural areas was investigated. Sixty urban and thirty rural school children were randomly selected from three primary schools. Data was collected using a structured; pre tested and validated questionnaire which was analysed using statistical package for social science (SPSS) and descriptive statistics (frequency distribution and percentages). Chi-square analysis was also used to compare the breakfast intake of these school children in the urban and rural areas. The result of the study showed a higher breakfast consumption of children in the rural than the urban areas though the result was not statistically significant. The percentage distribution showed that 90% of the rural children took breakfast compared to the 78.3% of the urban school children while 10% and 21.7% of the rural and urban children respectively did not consume breakfast. The factors that contributed to the rural children not taking breakfast include unavailability of food, and not being hungry. In the urban area the factors that affect breakfast intake include lack of time, not being hungry and unavailability of food. However, there was a significant difference (P<0.05) in the availability of food in rural homes and the quantity of food purchased in the market compared to the urban dwellers. The rural dwellers had more food in their homes and purchased less food in the market. Poverty was implicated as the major cause of low breakfast intake. Other factors that affected breakfast intake were family size, occupation of the head of the house hold and educational level.

 
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Effect of  Dietary Supplementation of Inorganic Phosphorus on Feed Intake, Protein Intake, Feed Conversion and Phosphorus Gain/loss of the Hybrid African Catfish Heterobranchus Bidorsalis (`)  X Clarias Gariepinus (A) Fry

Effect of Dietary Supplementation of Inorganic Phosphorus on Feed Intake, Protein Intake, Feed Conversion and Phosphorus Gain/loss of the Hybrid African Catfish Heterobranchus Bidorsalis (`) X Clarias Gariepinus (A) Fry

ABSTRACT: Sixteen experimental diets were formulated to include four groups of inorganic phosphorus (P) sources {monosodium phosphate (MSP), monopotassium phosphate (MPP), monocalcium phosphate (MCP), and dicalcium phosphate (DCP) at four levels {A(0.40%), B(0.60%), C(0.80% and D(1.20%)}. Two controls of a non-phosphorus supplemental diet (CD) and a purified diet (PD) were fed along with the other 16 experimental diets to the fry of Heterobranchus bidorsalis X Clarias gariepinus hybrid (mean weight, 1.5 ± 0.12 g) at 5% body weight per day for 70 days. The results showed that the feed intake (FI), the protein intake (PI), the food conversion ratio (FCR) and the phosphorus gain/loss (PGL) varies significantly among the 18 diets tested (P < 0.001). The effect of the inorganic P sources on FI, PI, FCR and PGL was also significantly different (P < 0.001). The MSP supplemented diets appeared to elicit better responses in the fish than any of the other P-supplemented (MCP, MPP and DCP) d ets. A comparatively higher quantity of protein was consumed by the fish fed the MSP diets (15.28%) than other P-supplemented diets. A loss in the percent phosphorus content of fish flesh fed MSP diet was observed (-0.04%).Based on the above, MSP diets were the i best for enhancing growth.

 
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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Created 2 years ago by Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.