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Animal Research International

Animal Research International

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Comparative Effect of Crude Oil Products on Nitrogen Content of Clarias Gariepinus Juveniles

Comparative Effect of Crude Oil Products on Nitrogen Content of Clarias Gariepinus Juveniles

The comparative effect of crude oil products was investigated using Clarias gariepinus uveniles. The fsh (average weight 100.20 ± 0.08g) was introduced inograded concentratons (2.00, 4.00, 6.00 and 8.00 ml j i t i l l i i -1) of Bonny light crude oil (BLCO), premium motor spirit (PMS) Dua purpose Kerosene (DPK) in toxic phase that lasted for two hours. Ntrogen level was estimated from both serum and blood of C. gariepinus. Result showedthat there was increase in nitrogen content of fishin the treated samples compared to control experiment. This may be due to the presence of the crude oil. The biological parameter investigated showed significant differences (p<0.05) when compared to the control. Increase nitrogen content suggested that there was an alteration in the water chemistry predisposng the fish to stress and disease.

 
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Co-Parasitism and Morphometrics of Three Clinostomatids (Digenea: Clinostomatidae) in Sarotherodon Melanotheron From a Tropical Freshwater Lake

Co-Parasitism and Morphometrics of Three Clinostomatids (Digenea: Clinostomatidae) in Sarotherodon Melanotheron From a Tropical Freshwater Lake

In ever competitive environment of nature, evolution of most attributes of an organism - anatomy,physiology, and behaviour are determined by the environment through selection. The same is the microhabitats of Sarotherodon melanotheron where three Clinostomatids; Clinostomum tilapiae, Clinostomum complanatum, and Euclinostomum heterostomum, were recovered from Opi Lake (GPS N06.75275 . f i . l t t r *, E00749104*), were studied from (November 2007– October 2008) using multiple fishing gear techniques; cast nets, hook and line, and seine nets (150 mm – 200 mm), showed signiicant dfference (p < 005) in all other anatomical parts but the distance between oraand ventral suckers. The prevalence was low; (20.8 %) was recorded in C. complanatum, (6.4 %) in E. heterostomum and (21.1 %) in C. tilapiae. But mean intensity was high which was suggestive of heavy parasite burden; C. complanatum (2.7), C. tilapiae (5.8) and E. heterostomum (5.1). In therank-abundance curve for parasite communities C.tilapiae was more abundant than the other twospecies. Differential parasitic implications was due o selection for relatively better adaptiveness tohost’s microhabitats, more population size, better host location, and larger body size. Consequently, this resulted in a trade-off between larger morphometric parts and population size among the parasites.

 
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Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (Kap) of School Teachers on Malaria, Helminthiasis and Associated Risk Factors in Primary Schools in Onitsha, Anambra State, South-Eastern Nigeria

Knowledge, Attitude and Practice (Kap) of School Teachers on Malaria, Helminthiasis and Associated Risk Factors in Primary Schools in Onitsha, Anambra State, South-Eastern Nigeria

Structured questionnaires were administered to 160 teachers from different Nursery and Primary Schools in GRA Onitsha, Nigeria to assess their knowledge, atttude and practices (KAP) on malaria, helminthiass and associated risk factors in the schools’ premises. Educational attainments of the teachers were Masters Degree (0.8 %), Bachelors Degree (39.2 %), Diploma Certcate (50.8 %), and Secondary School Certificate (9.2 %). There were more female (99.2 %) than males (0.8 %). A high percentage o the teachers (754 %) attributed malaria to eating too much oily food, hereditary (0.7 %), intense sunlight (2.1 %), drinking of dirty water (0.7 %), butter (3.5 %), and fried foods (1.4 %). On malaria prevention, about 64.2 % of teachers heard about insecticide treated net (ITN) but have never used it. Other preventive measures mentioned were use of clean environment (31.9 %), mosquito nets (20.2 %), and antmalarial drugs (12.3 %). KAP on helminthiass indicated that some of teachers attributed worm infection to eating sugary foods (19.2 %), drinking dirty water (9.3 %), natural occurrence (1.3 %), eating with diry hands (13.9 %), unwashed fruits and vegetables (10.6 %), unripe fruits (3.3 %), and over ripped fruits (2.0 %). About 48.33 % had seen worms in pupil’s stool., while 375 % had de-wormed pupils; 533 % of them using Ketrax i i ifi f . i i t . . i f i . i i ®. Teachers’ perceved methods o preventing worm infection were avoidanceof sugary foods (27.9 %), washing hands before eating (10.46%), washing fruits and vegetables before consumption (26.2 %), and drinking clean water (10.46 %), while 22.1-30 % dd not knowhow to prevent nor treat helminthiasis Risk factorsfor parasitic infections observed in most of theschools included indiscriminate defecation, unhygienic lavatories, blocked drainages, container breeding habitats and open dumping of wastes.

 
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Aspects of the Biology of Heterotis Niloticus Cuvier 1829 (Osteoglossiformes: Osteoglossidae) in the Anambra Flood River System, Nigeria

Aspects of the Biology of Heterotis Niloticus Cuvier 1829 (Osteoglossiformes: Osteoglossidae) in the Anambra Flood River System, Nigeria

Studies on some aspects of the biology of Heterots nilotcus in Anambra river were carried out for 22 months. Analysis of the stomach content of 546 species of H. niloticus in Anambra river established the preponderance o plantivorous crustacean, copepods and cladocera throughout the four maturation stages examined. Seasonal variations occurred in the dietary components of the fish. The length-weights relationship and the relative condition revealed that females had better conditon. The mean length and weght were 94.5 ± 60 cm (29 – 167 cm) and 120 ± 21.8g (10 – 250g) respectively. A sex ratio of 1:0.8 (M: F) at Otuocha was more pronounced than at Ogurugu and Nsugbe. Dgestive enzyme assays in the different gut regions (oesaphagus, stomach, pyloriccaeca, ileum and rectum) of H. niloticus showed an array of glycosidase (amylase, sucrase, malatase, lactase, cellulase); protease, (pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin) and lpases. The pattern of spread and relative activity of the enzymes is consistent with its planktophagous diet. Haematocrit values, haemoglobin concentrations, erythrocyte and leucocytes counts, mean cells haemoglobin concentrations, plasma protein, glucose, albumin and inorganic ion (sodium, chloride, calcium, potassium, magnesium, phosphorus) for H. niloticus were established. Correlations were found between some blood parameters and standard length.

 
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Histological Studies of the Vomeronasal Organ of African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus, Waterhouse)

Histological Studies of the Vomeronasal Organ of African Giant Rat (Cricetomys Gambianus, Waterhouse)

The vomeronasal organ (VNO), a chemoreceptive organ was studied in African giant rat (Cricetomys gambianus, Waterhouse), a macrosmatic animal, by means of gross dissection and light microscopy. The VNO was located in the rostral part of the base of the nasal septum. It was tubular in shape, about 10.6 mm in length and opened in the rostral region of the nasal cavity, with a blind caudal end that terminated in glandular branches. Its lumen in the middle segment was lined by sensory epithelium on the medial wall and non-sensory epithelium on the lateral wall. The sensory epithelium showed sensory, supporting and basal cells, whereas the non-sensory wall contained psendostratified columnar cells with ciliated epithelium. Vomeronasal glands were present in the lateral wall and on the dorso-lateral region between the sensory and non-sensory epithela. Intraepithelial blood vessels were observed on the medial sensory epithelium. Nerve bundles were also apparent in the medial sensory wall. The vomeronasal capsule incompletely housed the organ and showed ossified areas. The histological observations suggest that the VNO isan important organ in sexual behaviours as in other rodents and will throw more light on future studies of the vomeronasal organ.

 
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Effect of Intraruminal Infussion of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Organic Matter Degradability, Total Volatile Fatty Acid and Methane Productions in West African Dwarf Sheep

Effect of Intraruminal Infussion of Saturated and Unsaturated Fatty Acids on Organic Matter Degradability, Total Volatile Fatty Acid and Methane Productions in West African Dwarf Sheep

This study describes the effect of intraruminal infusion of diferent proportions of palmitic (saturated fatty acid) and linolenic (unsaturated fatty acid) on rumen degradability of organic matter fraction of Pennisetium purpureum, total volatile fatty acid and total methane productions in West African Dwarf sheep. Five combination proportions of palmitic and linolenic acids viz: 70 % palmitic acid + 30 % linolenic acid, 30 % palmitic acid + 70 % linolenicacid, 50 % palmitic acid + 50 % linolenic acid, 100 % palmitic acid + 0 % linolenic and 0 % palmitic acid + 100 % linolenic acid designated treatments A-E respectivey served as the experimental treatments. These treatments were intraruminally infused into five (5) adult WAD sheep of average body weight of 1349 ± 163 kg and the trial performed in a 5 x 5 latin square experimental design. A sixth group of four sheep, that did not receive any fatty acid infusion, served as the control group. The in-sacco technique for degradability studies was adopted in the determination of organic matter dsappearance from the rumen at tme intervals of 4, 8, 12, 24 and 48 hours in both the experimental and control groups. Appropriate mathematical model for estimation o total volatile fatty acid (VFA) and total methane production were used for determination o VFA and methane productions. The result of the study showed that organic matter degradability was signifcantly (p < 001) highest in treatment A (70 % palmitic acid + 30 % linolenic acid) at 24 hours (8463± 8.6 %) and 48 hours (88.42 ± 4.8 %) compared to other treatments and the control. Higher proportion of linolenic acid (treatments B and E ) significantly (p<0.01) reduced potential OM degradabiy at 48 hours wth values at 41.08 ± 5.5 % and 23.92 ± 2.4 % respectvely. Tota VFA production was signiicanty (p <0.01) increased ntreatment A at 24 hours (3.59 ± 0.07 m mol/l) and 48 hours (3.62 ±0.04 m mol/l) compared to other treatments and the control. At same time post incubation, tota

 
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Physiologic Evidences of Good Tolerance of Concurrent Rumen Fistulation and Duodenal Cannulation in West African Dwarf Sheep

Physiologic Evidences of Good Tolerance of Concurrent Rumen Fistulation and Duodenal Cannulation in West African Dwarf Sheep

Twelve adult West African Dwarf (WAD) sheep of mean age and body weight of 18 ± 1.19 months and 14.69 ± 256 kg body weight respectively were used to study the compatibility of concurrent rumen fisulation and duodenal cannulation with normal life. The compatibility with norma life was assessed by differences in body weight, voluntary feed intake, rectal temperature and some haematological and biochemical parameters for a period of eight weeks between test and contro groups. During the sudyperiod, all the six animals survived the surgery. There was no significant (p < 0.05) dfference in body weight between the test and control groups for the entire study period (week 1-8). The mean rectal temperature of the test group was significantly (p < 0.05) higher than the control group on week 1(44.6 ± 3.150C), week 2 (43.26 ± 414 0C) and week 3 (41.15 ± 6620C) after implantation. Packed cell volume (PCV) and erythrocyte count (EC) were significantly reduced in the test group within the frst three weeks (33.19 ± 141 to 24.45 ± 1.39%and 7.01 ± 134 to 437 ± 1.58 x 106μl) respectively. On the contrary, total leukocyte count (TLC), and neutrophils were significantly higher in the test group between weeks 1 to 3 (12.48 ± 435 and 31.09 ± 3.67 respectvely) compared to the control (8.06 ± 0.95 and 23.41 ± 2.09 respecvely. Lymphocytes were insignificantly higher in the test group while voluntary feed intake was insigniicantly reduced in the test group throughout the eight weeks. Biochemical analyses revealed that serum creatinine was signicantly higher in the test group at week 1 (3.62 ± 1.18) and week 2 (3.08 ± 1.44) afer surgery. There was however, no significant difference in serum total proteins during the study period. Serum potassium concentrations were sgniicantly decreased inthe test group at week 1 (4.96 ± 1.03 to 1.34 ± 0.04). Sodum was also signcanty reduced (146.08 ± 3.78 to 96.03 ± 6.21) but on week 3 post impantation (PI). On the other hand, serum globulin was significantl

 
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The Generation and Properties of Solid Monodisperse Aerosols of Stearic Acid and Carnauba Wax

The Generation and Properties of Solid Monodisperse Aerosols of Stearic Acid and Carnauba Wax

A monodisperse aerosol generator (MAGE) was used to generate calibration or monodisperse aerosols containing stearic acid and carnauba wax. Some of the factors affecting the size of aerosol particles generated with the MAGE were determined. The factors include: temperature of operation of the MAGE, type and purity of coating material used. The reproducibility of aerosol particles and stability of the aerosol generated were evaluated. The performance characteristics of the MAGE over an extended period of time of operation were also established. The calibration aerosols generated with the MAGE can be used in situ for studies of aerosol deposition measurement equipment.

 
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The Use of Rectal Temperature Fluctuations in the Study of Circadian Rhythm in Three Adult Vertebrate Species in Awka, Nigeria

The Use of Rectal Temperature Fluctuations in the Study of Circadian Rhythm in Three Adult Vertebrate Species in Awka, Nigeria

Biological clocks allow organisms to assess and respond to the oscillating environmental rhythms that result from the earths movements via the generation of biological rhythms. Circadian clocks are also assumed to enhance survival and reproductive fitness in part by promoting optional timingof behaviour and physiology in relation to regular cycles in the environment. Temperature fluctuations were studied in three different vertebrate species – Sylvilagus floridanus, Rattus norvegicus and Columba livia in relation to the rhythmicity of rectal temperature. Clinical digital thermometer was used to record the core temperatue by inserting it 2 – 3 cm deep from the anal sphincter before taking readings 3 minutes after. The highest recorded mean rectal temperature for R. norvegicus and S. floridanus were 38.85 ± 0.40 0C and 39.83 ± 0.32 0C respectively with the lowest being 36.58 ± 0.74 0C and 36.63 ± 0.18 0C respectively. C. livia failed to exhibit core temperature fluctuation. There were not significant differences in the mean rectal temperature for both sexes for S. floridanus in relation to time of day. Differences in the circadian temperature fluctuations were traced to variation among the animals, of preferred temperature arising from differential behavioural and physiologcal regulation, in relation to environmental cues. It is also possible that daily changes in illuminaton were secondary to C. lvia. The results also suggest thatcircadian rhythmicity persists even in artificially imposed selective environment. Rectal temperatures are adequate for monitoring the biorhythms, with each species exhibiting endogenous peculiarities in the various circadian phases.

 
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Morphological Studies of Vomeronasal Organ in the Wild Juvenile Red- Flanked Duiker Cephalophus Rufilatus (Gray 1864)

Morphological Studies of Vomeronasal Organ in the Wild Juvenile Red- Flanked Duiker Cephalophus Rufilatus (Gray 1864)

The vomeronasal organ (VNO) of the juvenile Red-flanked duiker (Cephalophus rufilatus) weighingbetween 0814 kg was studied by gross dissection and light mcroscopy. The organ was found to be present at the base of the nasal septum completely housed by the vomeronasal cartilage, but the various soft tissue components of the organ were not remarkably present as in most adult mammals. The average palatal length of the organ was 1.9 cm, while the transverse diameter of the lumen of the duct measured 0.5 cm. The average thickness of the vomeronasal sensory epithelum on the medial wall was 5005 μm, while that of the ‘non sensory’ respiratory epithelumon the lateral wall was 40.05 μm. Our findings suggest that the VNO of the juvenile duiker is rudimentary at this stage and may not be able to support vomeronasal functions. Further development of the various components is requiredto achieve its functional capacity.

 
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A Publication of the Department of Zoology and Environmental Biology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Enugu State, Nigeria.

Created 2 years ago by Animal Research International, University Of Nigeria, Nsukka.