Entries on Pharmacy
Price earnings ratio is widely and commonly used in determining if a stock is over or undervalued. Basically, price earnings ratio, expresses the relationship between current stock market price per share and the reported yearly earnings per share; usually of the last quarters. It derived its meaning from the payback multiple, which is the time it will take to recover one’s investment. It also, shows what the market or investors are willing to pay today for a stock based on its past and future earnings. Hence, it helps investors determine the price of stock compared to the earnings of the company.
The length-weight relatonship and condition factor of four mormyrid species namely Mormyrus rume, Hyperopisus bebe, Campylomormyrus tamandua and Gnathonemus petersii from Anambra river were investigated from October 2002 to March 2004. In al400 species M. rume, 384 H. bebe417 C. tamandua and 335 G. petersii were sampled for the study Length-weigh relationship showed that the exponent “b,’ were 3.067, 2.459, 3.201 and 3.114 for M. rume, H. bebe, C. tamandua and G. petersii respectively. The mormyrid species studied with exception of H. bebe exhibited isometric growth and the correlation coefficients were positive and highly sgnificant (P < 0.05). The condtion factor (k) varied from 0.69 ± 0.22 in G. petersii to 1.17 ± 0.59 in M. rume. There were no significant difference in the mean condition facor between themales and females inall the mormyrid species. The importance of condition factor in the breeding activities o the mormyrid species revealed that not much energy s diverted into gonad synthesis and maturation during the breeding cycle season.
The prevalence of caprine strongyle infections and the diagnostic efficacy of some culture media in supporting the recovery of strongyle larvae were evaluated using 840 faecal sampes collected from goats during slaughter at Maiduguri Metropolitan abattoir. Faecal examination conducted by the modfied McMaster technique revealed that outof 840 goats examined, 708 (83.8 %) shedded strongyle eggs in their faeces. The prevalence of infection was significantly (P < 005) higher among female, young and diarrhoeic goats than their corresponding male, adult and non-diarrheic counterparts. Faecal culture and larval recovery using the test tube filter paper technique revealedthat the direct culture o faecal samples without any additional culture medium supported the recovery of the largest number of nematode infecve larvae from the faeces. When this was used as a standard (100% egg hatch or 0% reduction in egg hatch), larval recovery was highest (P<0.05) from goat faeces (98.4 %) folowed respectively by sheep faeces (57.7 %), cow faeces (52.4 %), horse faeces (42.3 %) and so (18.6 %) as culture media. The results therefore indicatethe superor diagnostic quality o goat faeces as a culture medium for the recovery of infective nematode stages in goat faeces.
Tails of three groups of the Gekkonid lizard, Hemidactylus flavivirdis, were amputated (group I) orautotomized (groups II and III). The animals were exposed to 12 hours of ight and 12 hours of darkness. Ingroup I experiment, previously regenerated tails were amputated (repeated autotomyRA) with a pair of sharp scissors, after anesthetizing the animals with ice cubes, at point equivalent to three autotomy segments. The orginal planes of autotomy have been replaced by ependymal tubes and there were noblood exudates,. In group II the spinal cord at thelocal site of autotomy was carefuly removed (spinal cord removed, SCR), with dissecting instruments, for a length equal to one autotomy segment Lizards in group III served as controls (NormalLizard NL). The results show that the initiation o regeneration, the growth rate, the total length of new growth (regenerate) produced, and the total percentage replacement of the lost (amputated/autotomized) tails 30 days after excision were all signiicantly less in lizards of group II (p < 001) and insignifcantly less in group I lzards, when compared with the controls (group III). The results show that for complete regeneration of the lizard tai neural tissue must be present.
The susceptibility of 4th instar larvae of Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were evaluated in laboratory. Larval mortality was assessed 24 hour afterexposure. The result showed that the LDi, .50 values for Aedes aegypti exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.48, 37.09 and 0.29 μg per liter respectvely. The LD50 values for Culex quinquefasciatus of exposed to dieldrin, dichlovos and cypermethrin were 0.11 10.05 and 005 μg per liter respectively.
Laboratory bioassays were conducted to evaluate the pupicidal activity of neem (Azadirachta indica) seed kernel extracts (NSKE) on Aedes aegypti. The neem seed kernel powder was sequentially extracted with hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, DMSO, 2-propanol, ethanol, methanol and dstiledwater. Ten concentratons (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0, 4.0, 50, 10.0,15.0 and 20.0%) of the neem extracts were used for the bioassays. Each treatment was replcated five times. Twenty-laboratory strains of Aedes aegypti pupae were exposed to each concentration Pupae were not fed durng the exposure periods. Pupal mortality was assessed after 1 and 24 hoursof exposure. The results of the effects of 1h exposure indicated decreased pupicidal mortality whdecreasing extracts toxicity thus: ethyl acetate (LC i l i . i . i it . i l i l l l 50 = 0.06%) > acetone > (LC50 = 0.29%) > benzene (LC50 = 0.82%) > hexane (LC50 = 3.13%) and propanol (LC50 = 763%). No pupal mortality was observed with extracts from Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), ethanol, methanol and distilled water. The results of the effect of extract for 24h exposure indicated pupicidal mortality in2-propanol (LC50 = 0.67%) and ethanol (LC50 = 1.70%). No pupcida mortality was observed wth hexane, benzene, ethyl acetate, acetone, Dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), methano and distiled water extracts. The ability of some neem extracts to kill Aedes pupae at relativey low concentrations presents an alternative to the use of synthetic pesticides for control of mosquitoes. This techniqueis environmental friendly, biodegradable, less expensive, and locally available in mosquito endemicarea. Potentials for adoption in mosquito management programmes cannot be overemphasized.
The introduction of forage legumes into grass pastures has generally improved grazing animal production by increasing total edible biomass and nutrient profiles. An experiment was designed tostudy the performance of sheep grazing Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum and Pennisetum purpureum in combination with Gliricidia sepium. Eighteen paddocks of approximately 0.03 ha were used in the tra Nine of the paddocks had Gliricidia sepium alley planted in rows 4 mapart and interplanted with 4 rows of either Brachiaria decumbens, Panicum maximum, or Pennisetum purpureum. The other nine paddocks had only the grass species withoutthe Gliricidia sepium. The paddocks were each grazed by 3 sheep. The pure grass stands without the Gliricidia sepium served as controls for the grass species in combination with Gliricidia sepium. The three grasses and their combinations within the alley plots were replicated three times.The animals weregrazed continuously for 28 days in the sub plots. Sheep grazing the Gliricidia/Panicum plot had a higher (P < 001) growth rate (38 g d-1) than those animals grazing both the Gliricidia/Bracharia (23 g d-1) and Gliricida/Pennisetum (21 g d-1) plots respectively. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) between sheep grazing the Gliricidia/Bracharia and Gliricidia/Pennisetum plots. The total dry matter intake of sheep on the Gliricidia/Panicum plot was higher (P < 005) (1.33 kg DM d-1) than that of sheep on Gliricidia/Bracharia (0.86 kg DM d-1) and Gliricidia/Pennisetum (0.43 kg DM d-1) plots respectivey. The total biomass from the Gliricidia/Bracharia (23 t ha -1)and Gliricidia/Panicum (21 t ha -1) plots respectively were higher (P < 001) than the total biomass from the Gliricidia/Pennisetum ( 13 t ha -1) plo. These results demonstrate that grazing West African dwarf sheep in a Gliricidia sepium/Panicum maximum plot improved their growth rate during dry season when feed supplies are limited. It also underscores the poor performance of animals
Hereditary disorders of erythrocytes are common in many areas of the world, including Cameroon Limited knowledge on the consequences of high incidences of sickle haemoglobin (HbS) and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency genes in the Cameroons might have been responsible for the haemoglobin genotype mismatched marriages among the sickle heterozygotes and drug-induced anaemia among the G6PD deficient individuals ignorantly treated wth oxidant drugs having high redox potential. The situation therefore, informed the random screening of the populace of the North West and South West populatons of Cameroon for these genes wth a view not only to reveal their current incidences and level of interaction but also to educate the people onthe consequences of these genetic defects. Our results revealed the total incidences of 32.20 % sickle and 1161 % G6PD deficiency genes. The percentage frequency of the sickle cell gene was higher in the South western (1880 %) than in the North West (1451 %) populations. The percentage incidence o G6PD deficiency was 921 % and 120 % for males and females respectvely in the North West and 10.85 % and 1.46 % for males and females respectively in the South West. The interaction was not sgnificant (P > 0.01) between G6PD deficiency and HbS for the North West and South West populatons. These genetic defects must have reached polymorphiclevels due to natural selection through survival advantage against death from malaria and consanguineous marriages.
The effects o alcohol consumption on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status were investigated in the alloxan induced dabetic rats. Plasma from the diabetic rats not treated with alcohol (DNT); diabetic rats treated with alcohol (DT) and non diabetic rats (ND) were analysed for their malondialdelyde (MDA) and vitamin C levels. Both the glucose level and the body weightwere alsostudied. The mean weights o the rats in the diferent groups were the same until the onset o diabetes and alcohol ingestion when the weight decreased. After nine (9) days of alcohol suppementaton, the DT rats weighed114.00 ± 0.41 g and the DNT rats weghed 121.00 ± 1.22 gwhile the rats in the controlled group weighed 146.33 014 g. The glucose levels for DT, DNT and ND were 29.56, ± 0.56, 28.81 ± 0.87 and 5.42 ± 0.19 nmol/ respectvely. Analyss of the lipd peroxidaton product (MDA) obtained showed a significant (P < 005) increase in MDA values from – DT rate (38.63 ± 3.88) nmol/ml to DNT rats (2863 ± 1.38 nmol/lml), whle MDA value for ND rats was 7.88 ± 1.38 nmol/l. Plasma vitamin C vaues of 0.62 ± 0.05 mg/100ml 1.107 " 0.13 mg/100ml and 1.79 ± 0.15 mg/100mlor DT, DNT and ND respectvely were obtaned.
The research was carried out to evaluate the in-vitro antimicrobial activity and phytochemical constituents of Cassia occdentials. Cassia leaves were collected from Kacha town in Niger State and extracted using methano, hexane, chloroform and water extraction methods. Serial concentrations: 50 60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 % methanol, hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts were prepared and sterilized. The bacterial isolates used; E. coli, P. multocida, S. typhi, S. typhimurium, S. pyogenes, S. pneumoniae and K. pneumoniae were authenticated using biochemical and serological methods. The suspenson (0.5) of each bacterial isolate was prepared in isotonic sodium chloride. The disc agar diffusion method was performed on 70 Mueller-Hinton agar pates, 10 per microorganism , using serial diffusion concentraton: 500, 600, 700, 800, 900 and 1000 mg o hexane, methanol, chloroform and water. The results showed that all the extracts of Cassia occidentalis have antimicrobial activity on E col at concentrations between 900 – 1000 mg. E. coli was most susceptible to hexane extract at concentration ranges between 500 – 1000 mg, there was no antimicrobial activity exhibited against the other tested microorganisms Phytochemical analyses showed the presence of alkaloid, tannin, saponin, glycoside and flavonoid, steroid was absent.