Entries on Nigeria
ABSTRACT: A modest acquaintance with the history of colonialism in Nigeria will show that from the onset it had provoked resistance from the citizens. Colonialism nullified dissent and political freedom hence it aroused attack from not just the politicians but also trade unionists who remained steadfast and unbowed all through the period it lasted. The various labour crises during our period of study, though economic in outlook had some political undertone; a rejection of the colonial system .The Trade Union Ordinance was one of the measures employed by the colonial authorities to whittle labour from de-colonization process. Labour leaders were also incarcerated to intimidate them from joining forces with the nationalist movement. Although there is a growing literature on labour movement, it does not seem to have sufficiently addressed labour’s role towards the attainment of independence. This paper intends not only to interrogate such a role but to also put it in historical perspective so as to fill the noticed gap. Since the topic cuts across other disciplines such as political science, economics, sociology, public administration etc, the paper used inter – disciplinary approach for self-enrichment. It affirms that there was a synergy between nationalists and labour which gave rise to independence in 1960. It also avers that while the 1945 General Strike sowed the seed of labour independence struggle the blood of the colliery workers stain in 1949 watered it into fruition .From 1945 through 1960 witnessed a combative nationalism and aggressive labour activism which wrestled power from the colonial rulers on October 1, 1960.
Abstract: Governance has been seen as the way decisions are arrived at, implemented, and justified and used to manage public resources and affairs at local, state, national, organizational and global levels of human societies. This paper sets out to look at the contributions of art towards criticizing negative aspects of governance in Nigeria. It shows how art, especially painting, was used as a tool for exposing the negative sides of governance in Nigeria. For this, the issue of whether art is tangible enough to play the important role of interrogating bad aspects of governance in Nigeria was looked at. More so, the vision of the artists, themes that deal with and address the negative aspects of governance in Nigeria, and photographs of works were relied on in this study to show how relevant they are in exposing bad governance in Nigeria. Furthermore, this study has revealed that art is a veritable tool for interrogating, and exposing those bad sides of governance in Nigeria, and recommended that every profession in like manner should make their own contributions towards challenging bad governance in Nigeria, as no people can successfully fight bad governance and achieve sustainable progress if they do not first of all rise up to its true situation -calling things their real names.
Abstract: This study sought to investigate the effect of simulation method on secondary school students’ achievement in Government. It is a quasi-experimental study of non equivalent group design. Two research questions and two null hypotheses were formulated to guide the study. A sample of 120 students from two randomly selected secondary schools in Ayamelum Local Government Area of Anambra State, Nigeria was used for the study. Government Achievement Test (GAT) was developed, validated and used for data collection. The instrument (GAT) was trial-tested using Kudder-Richardson (K-R20) which established a reliability index of 0.87 which warranted its use for the study. Mean, standard deviation and Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) were used for the data analysis. The results revealed that students performed significantly better in Government when exposed to simulation method than conventional lecture method. It was also found that male and female students’ achievement using simulation method, do not differ significantly. It concluded that if simulation method is adopted in teaching Government, students would learn practical skills and develop critical thinking ability that will help them survive in the society. The study recommended among others that curriculum designers should recommend simulation method as one of the interactive and participatory approaches to the study of Government and that government teachers adopt it in their teaching.
The objective of this paper is to suggest a long lasting and an amicable non-violent conflict resolution methods (beyond mere granting of amnesty to the militant youths) that would be capable of ending the protracted Niger Delta crises and by so doing enhance the process of democratic governance in Nigeria. The paper has consequently highlighted the dangerous consequences of the protracted conflict in the region especially with respect to Nigeria‟s nascent democracy. As a lasting solution to this socio-political log-jam, this paper has recommended four principal methods of Alternative Dispute Resolution (ADR) Strategies. These special conciliation techniques include; negotiation, mediation, arbitration and restitution. In the opinion of this paper, a careful manipulation of these strategies is capable of unraveling the systematic and professional ways through which carefully designed policies can create fresh and long lasting opportunities that can promote a sustainable and creative joint problem solving culture as well as the necessary supervision and facilitation of neutral good agreement between conflicting interest groups in the Niger Delta region. These opportunities are expected to consider the needs of the various stake holders in the conflict with special reference to those of the restive militants.
Materialism has long been accustomed to onslaught proceeding from those who oppose the over acquisition of material wealth at the expense of others. It has been treated as an enemy by the church, the moralists and those who want to maintain status quo. Today, with the astromical increase of bribery and corruption, the indictment proceedings from those who want immediate social change in Nigeria affected have increased their agitation. It is well known that everything for which materialists acquire is put in peril in time of war or natural disaster in the World, crisis, its ideals and glory are equally challenged and engulfed, common believe is that materialism flourishes only in times of fair social weather. It is important to disabuse the minds of our readers who may thing that the term as used in this essay refers to the philosophical concept, which sees the entire universe, man inclusive as a material. On the contrary the term is used to refer to material wealth. The main thrust of this short essay is to examine how materialism has affected the religious and the social life of the Nigerians. The paper will also discuss the positive and negative effects of materialism on the people and on the development of Nigeria. This paper was informed by the general religious apathy and the desire of almost every Nigerian to amass material wealth at all cost without due consideration for the welfare of the less privileged in the society.
The main thrust of this paper is an analysis of the concept of state generally and a historical prognosis on the dynamics of the post colonial state system of Nigeria. It additionally discusses the role of the Nigerian state in the implementation of basic democratic configurations in the governance theatrics of Nigeria. The paper‟s postulation is that, in the context of effective democratization of the polity in Nigeria, the Nigerian state has not achieved the objective conditions for democratic governance, leading to citizen‟s political deprivation.
Abstract Some studies assert with evidence that the concept of a supreme God is foreign to Igbo pre-missionary contact religious thoughts. They mostly point to western influences on such a “supremacy” concept in both the minds of the early observers of the Igbo and in the Igbo themselves who had been either proselytized or swayed by the proselytization of Christianity, consciously or not. Other scholars confirm the presence of a supreme God in Igbo religious thoughts. Using Georg Hegel’s Dialectic and Uzodinma Nwala’s Radical Interpenetration as theoretical framework, this work presents both views, collecting data through documentary evidence of ethnographic reports and closely examining the perspectives of ethnographic reports in pursuit of any undeniable proof of the existence and extent of structure and popularity of the concept of supreme deification in Igbo thoughts. The evolution of Igbo traditional religious systems catalyzed by migrant knowledge and the adoption and syncretization of the appurtenances of outside cultures were investigated. The researchers came to the deduction that for the pre-Aro adult Igbo, the definition of supreme Deity is different from western thinking today in that a supreme Deity is particularistic or universal in a decentralized form for a given Igbo clan and from the viewpoint of that clan, the deity is the highest among gods in the world (where “world” meant a smaller sphere than is seen today). Before Aro, then, many politically acephalous Igbo clans attributed supremacy to Ani, the Earth deity. Ani was popularized by the pre-missionary contact Nri (500BC -1500AD) who came from the east (Igala-Jukun-Hamito-Semitic cultures) with Chukwu (as a concept, not name)...
ABSTRACT The controversy over how appropriately the Nigerian dramatist can convey his cultural experience and narrative to his audience through the conduit of an imported language burdened with its alien set of conventions, syntax and structure has engaged many Nigerian anthropological and literary scholars for some time now. How a particular society perceives a character presented by the narrator depends largely on how a parallel line connecting that character to the peculiar qualities, personalities or situation in that society can be well drawn by the folk dramatist. Language and communication are essential features of drama and in the retelling of these folk stories, performers indirectly become language teachers to their audience, and assist them to re-learn it. The functional theory of folk theatre which makes it a source of vital information about the culture of the Nigeria society, and trainer of enhanced language skills, has been ignored. Presently, folktales are fast disappearing from the life of the average Nigerian family as people face new modes and foreign languages of entertainment. People have lost the enduring lessons of our folktale tradition. Government has disregarded the need to pass on indigenous language inherited from the ancestors to their offspring. Indigenous language needs to evolve to take on the challenge of foreign languages. The article examines the measures to be adopted to breach this language divide and salvage this situation.
ABSTRACT This paper explores the origins and history of minstrelsy through to Igbo minstrelsy in the world. Then it settles down to ferret out the nature of Igbo minstrelsy today, given that the advent of western music and the effects of colonization have turned it around to no ends. The purpose of getting at the heart of its nature is to provide salvific paradigms for its resurrection from the doldrums of oblivion. With the heavy western popular music of Nigeria today, the study becomes very expedient as a drive towards preserving an aspect of Igbo culture which brings to the fore the art of pathfinding, social criticism and valve for public opinion, especially against leaders who are not attuned to taking advice from those they govern. The method of data collection is secondary documentary evidence, with a view to bringing out articles which have investigated through field research the minstrelsy of the past, knowing that such investigations today would be marred by confabulations and social changes. Recommendations are given for the restoration of Igbo minstrelsy to its popular position, and then a conditional forecast is made in the last sentence of the conclusion.
Abstract Game theory is the formal study of the rational and consistent expectation that participants can have about each other’s choices, especially when the actions of several agents are interdependent. In Nigeria, there is the application of game theory in several activities which had negated the principles of unity, faith, brotherhood, rules, law, order and development. There are implicit and explicit implications of these on religious and political activities in a nation with diverse language, culture, ethnic politics and religion. The study was limited to zero-sum game with the aim of examining the religious and political implications of the zero-sum game in Nigeria. The data was gathered through secondary sources which includes but not limited to books, journals, newspapers and network news sources. It was analysed using content analysis. The study found that religion has a strong history of influence over political activities in Nigeria; Christians, Muslims, politicians and bureaucrats are actively involved in game theory practice against each other manifesting in various forms, including: incitement, distortion of fact about the other, blocking each other’s chances, hatred and blackmailing as well as destruction of lives and property. The practice has not only reduced the level of development but has also made the truth of our heroes-past to be in vain, with poor judicial proceedings, lack of one nation, brotherhood and peace. The Nigerian leaders and stakeholders in religion and politics should engage in zero-sum game and non zero-sum game in order to produce results that would radiate peace, tranquility and development...
Abstract The need for peaceful co-existence and social stability has never been more urgent in Nigeria than it is today. This is why ways of achieving them should be, and in fact they actually are, in the front burner of government agenda at all levels of governance in Nigeria. In line with this concern, this paper takes a look at the ways language can be used to foster, promote and sustain ethno-religious tolerance as a means of ensuring social stability in Nigeria. The task in the paper involves highlighting the features and functions of language as a peculiar human possession, conceptualizing ethnic and religious tolerance to put them in the perspective of this paper, and outlining how language use can help bring about peaceful ethno-religious co-existence. The paper concludes that language use can make or mar social relations and that toleration is indispensable for a healthy co-existence in a multi-ethnic society. Recommendations are given on how to ensure proper exploitation of language features and functions for peaceful co-existence and social stability. The core of the recommendations is that deliberate steps should be taken to promote mutual understanding of one another’s culture, language and religion.
Abstract This article discusses the need to maximize the potentials of artists with special needs for sustainable development in Nigeria. The qualitative research design was adopted and interviews were applied. The findings show that though some artists live with severe, mild or moderate disabilities, they are resourceful. They have the ability to perform artistic and inartistic activities. Regrettably, Nigerian governments, the management of arts institutions and civic bodies have not usefully engaged or explored the capabilities of the artists with disabilities into the nation’s work force. This paper concludes that one of the ways to manage the potentials of artists with disabilities, and improve their lives is for the government, civic bodies and arts administrators to provide them full and productive employment, and work. Alternatively, they should be provided with infrastructure to enable them establish, manage and own artistic business ventures towards self- reliance and self- sufficiency.