Entries on Animal Production
Mechanical vibrations are congenital to any system of transportation. In poultry industry, the higher or lower intensity of this agent during the transportation of eggs and chickens can increase the production losses and decrease the efficiency of the system as a whole. This study was carried out to investigate the effects of mechanical vibration (MV) generated by mechanized equipment on eggs, chickens mortality and levels of some blood biochemicals (triglyceride, glucose, cholesterol, calcium, phosphorus, urea) were analyzed in one days chickens. The data showed that the glucose and urea concentrations in blood of one day old chicks and their mortality increased with increasing vibration levels but calcium, cholesterol and triglyceride levels decreased. Levels of vibration seemed not to affect all of parameters. Mechanical vibrations may be responsible for the incidence of cracks, in addition to promoting the agitation of internal constituents (yolk and albumen), which could potentially compromise the quality of birth and hatchlings. The mechanical vibration are related to stress, discomfort and depreciation of the welfare of the birds, changed in glucose and corticosteroids levels and thus affect other factors as well as the quality of the meat.
The behavioural and serum liver enzyme responses of juvenile catfish (Clarias gariepinus) were evaluated for 72 hours. Thirty-six (36) healthy fishes with standard weight, 20 ± 1.52 g and standard length, 18.25 ± 0.50 cm were used for the experiment in non-renewable bioassay system. The test fish exhibited stressful behavioural changes such as erratic swimming, vertical swimming, gasping, and body discolouration. The 24 and 48-hours LC50 were determined to be 96.937 and 9.765 mg/ml respectively. Increased serum aspartate amino transferase and alanine transferase concentrations were recorded on the final day of the experiment (p<0.05).
Carcass and economic indices of rabbits fed dietary ripe Gmelina fruit (RGFP) pulp were assessed. Sixty rabbits, aged six weeks (New Zealand White x Chinchilla cross) of mixed sexes (25 males and 35 females) were shared into five groups of 12 animals each and balanced on sex and initial weight and randomly allotted to the five experimental diets. Maize, the only energy source of diet I was replaced with 25, 50, 75 and 100% RGFP in diets II, III, IV and V, respectively in the 16 weeks trial. Carcass characteristics were determined pre-chill. Completely Randomized Design, one-way analysis of variance was used and significant (p<0.05) means were separated using least significant difference. The cost of feed (N/kg), cost of feed consumed (N/animal), cost of feed per weight gain (N/kg weight gain), final weight, fasted weight, percentage weight loss, dressed weight and dressing percentage ranged from 55.07 – 28.21, 407.07 – 213.55 and 307.68 – 207.34, 1900 – 1605g, 1884.90 – 1589.78g, 15.23 – 15.09%, 1206.42 – 1017.46g and 64.01 – 63.97%, respectively. As a percentage of the dressed carcass, the shoulder, loin, rack, thigh, head, tail, belly fat, lung, kidney, liver and heart weights (g) ranged from 33.53 – 33.47, 8.97 – 8.74, 6.28 – 6.18, 35.29 – 35.16, 5.20 – 5.13, 3.29 – 3.19, 3.30 – 2.89, 0.32 – 0.30, 1.50 – 1.47, 2.80 – 2.77 and 0.18 – 0.15, respectively. Diet I had the highest cost of feed, cost of feed consumed, cost of feed per kilogramme weight gain, pre-slaughter weight and percentage belly fat, while diet V had the least values of the above parameters except percentage belly fat and dressed weight. Also, the values for these indices decreased as dietary RGFP increased. Though undesirable, the meat of control rabbits was the fattiest. Dietary inclusion of RGFP did not affect percentage weight loss, shoulder, loin, thigh, head, tail, lung, kidney, liver, heart and dressing percentage. For optimal returns on investment, RGFP may not replace above 75% of maize in
It seems antioxidant and sex hormones are able to protect the multiple sclerosis (MS) rats against spatial memory reduction. Since sex hormones and oxidative stress are affective in the process of multiple sclerosis (MS), as well as cognitive functions, the study evaluates the effects of intrahippocampal injection of vitamin C and progesterone, alone or in combination on spatial memory in multiple sclerosis. Sixty-three (63) male Wistar rats were divided into nine groups (n = 7): control, (saline), sesame oil, lesion (ethidium bromide (EB)), vitamin C (1, 5 mg/kg), progesterone (0.1, 1 μg/μl) and combination therapy. In combination therapy, animals were treated with vitamin C (5 mg/kg) + progesterone (0.01 mg/kg). Animals in experimental groups received different treatments for 7 days. Characteristics of learning and spatial memory were assessed using Morris Water Maze (MWM). The results showed that intrahippocampal injection of ethidium bromide destroys MWM significantly (p<0.05). Vitamin C (5 mg/kg), progesterone (0.1 mg/kg) and vitamin C (5 mg/kg) + progesterone (0.1 mg/kg) significantly decreased latency time and travelled distance (P<0.05) in MS or lesion rats. In comparison with control group, the lesion group decreased and progesterone 0.1 mg/kg + vitamin C 5 mg/kg increased the time and distance in the target quadrant after the platform was removed. In comparison with lesion group, vitamin C (1 and 5 mg/kg), progesterone (0.1 and 1 mg/kg) and vitamin C + progesterone effective doses increased the time and distance in the target quadrant after the platform was removed. The results showed that multiple sclerosis rats had a decreased travelled distance and time spent in target quadrant to find the hidden platform in a MWM task. Vitamin C and progesterone alone improved spatial memory in comparison to lesion group. Effective doses of vitamin C + effective dose of progesterone had more improving effect on memory.
The potentials of using milk composition as indicators of energy balance (EB) in dairy cows were evaluated. Milk composition traits (milk protein, fat and lactose percentages) from thirteen (13) primiparous and 47 multiparous (F1) Friesian x Bunaji cows were studied. The milk composition was analyzed weekly from 4 to 300 days postpartum. The analyzed percentage milk fat, protein and lactose were used to calculate the other milk composition parameters. The mean estimates of EB based on milk measures for all the 3 stages of lactation were positive. However, the magnitude of the average estimates of the EB increased with stages of lactation; 21.99, 46.514 and 59.097MJ/d for stages 1, 2 and 3 respectively. The magnitude and direction of the correlations between EB and milk composition traits varied across stages of lactation; the correlation coefficient was relatively stronger in the 3rd stage than the 1st and 2nd stages of lactation. The potential indicators of EB identified from this study were the protein contained variables, such as milk protein content (MPC), fat-protein ratio (FPR), change in milk protein content (dmPc), change in fat-protein ratio (dFPR) and change in protein-lactose ratio (dPLR). These variables had strong relationship with EB both within and across lactation stages. However, dmPc seems to be the variable most common to all of these potential milk production variables. It had very strong and positive relationship with EB both within and across lactation stages. This suggested that high milk protein is associated with positive EB, while the decrease in milk protein content is associated with negative energy balance (NEB). Therefore, the dynamics of changes in milk composition measures during lactation could be used to monitor the EB status of dairy cows.
There had been dearth of information on the level of fetal wastages in slaughtered pigs in West African countries other than Nigeria. This study evaluates the fetal losses due to slaughtering of pregnant pigs at the Kumasi abattoir in Kumasi, Ghana. The ages of the fetuses were estimated using standard technique with the influence of sex, age and breed of pig on fetal loss being evaluated. Data were subjected to descriptive and quantitative analysis. 2817 pigs were slaughtered during the period of the study with a monthly average of 563.1739(61.73%) were sows and 430(29.27%) were pregnant. 141(28.20%) sows were slaughtered in January, constituting the highest throughout the period of the study with corresponding fetal loss of 616(76.60%). Most of the fetuses wasted in this study were recorded in the second and third trimester (83.51%). The percentage of fetal wastage (the total number of fetuses wasted divided by the total number of pigs slaughtered) was 2117(75%) in this study. The results revealed high incidence of fetal losses at the Kumasi abattoir. There is need to advocate for routine veterinary checks and interventions in order to reduce the high level of fetal wastage which call for strategic planning and decision-making on animal food security in Ghana.
Termites feed on decaying organic matter including plant parts and wood, concentrating heavy metals in the process. The main campus of Lagos State University was surveyed for termite species and their heavy metal contents. Nests including mounds, wooden structures and discarded wood products were observed for termite activities and the insect samples collected for identification and subsequent metal analyses. Composite samples of selected termite species and the soil or wood dust around them were respectively digested and analyzed for the presence of Iron (Fe), Potassium (K), Sodium (Na). Zinc (Zn) Cadmium (Cd), Copper (Cu), Chromium (Cr), Lead (Pb), Nickel (Ni) and Cobalt (Co) using Atomic Absorption Spectrophotometer (AAS). The results showed that Macrotermes bellicosus (Isoptera: Macrotermitinae), Reticulitermes flavipes (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) and Kalotermes flavicollis (Isoptera: Kalotermitidae) occurred on the main campus of Lagos State University in Ojo, Lagos. Heavy metal analyses of termite castes showed that M. bellicosus worker had Ni, Fe, Cd, Co, Pb, Na and K with Fe having the highest concentration of 24.6 mgL-1 while Co had the least (0.03mgL-1). The reproductive caste had the highest concentration (4.68 mgL-1). The Soldier of M. bellicosus showed the presence of all metals detected in its worker caste excluding Cu & Ni with Fe having the highest concentration (5.12mg/L). The Soldier and Worker castes of Kalotermes similarly showed the presence of the same metals as M. bellicosus soldier. Analyses of data by Kyplot showed high correlation between heavy metal concentrations in study termite species relative to their nest materials.
The survey for freshwater snails in streams, rivers and a lake in Ovia Southwest LGA of Edo State, Nigeria was carried out from June to November, 2013. Samples were collected by using sweep-net and by hand picking of snails within the open water habitat, at marginal areas and on submerged vegetation at edges of the habitats. A total number of 579 individual snails belonging to 6 families, Ampullariidae (Lanistes varicus), Mutelidae (Aspatharia subreniformis), Thiaridae (Melanoides tuberculata), Bulimlidae (Bulimulus teniussimus, Drymaeus multilineatus), Bithyniidae (Gabbiella humerosa), Hygrniidae (Monacha catiana) were collected. In terms of number and distribution, the Lanistes varicus was the most dominant species consisting of 258(44.6%) of the total number of snails collected. 330(56.9%) number of snails were collected from the open water, 209(36.1%) in the marginal areas and 40(6.9%) on submerged vegetation.
Aquatic macroinvertebrates are an assemblage of aquatic community represented by members of almost all the invertebrate taxa. Most macroinvertebrate are benthic (benthos), others are planktonic or nektonic or surface water dwellers.
The study was conducted to investigate the optimum dietary protein level needed for growing genetically male tilapia, Oreochromis niloticus. Diets containing crude protein levels 40, 42.5, 45, 47.5 and 50% were formulated and tried in triplicates. Test diets were fed to 20 fish/1m3 floating hapa at 5% of fish body weight daily for 24 weeks. Survival of fish was not affected by dietary protein levels. Growth rate varied inversely with dietary protein levels to a maximum at 40%. Protein utilization and turnover decreased with increasing protein levels in diets. Quadratic regression analysis of growth indices against protein inclusion levels indicated that the optimum dietary protein required for maximum growth was 40%.This result also paralleled the least values of protein and calorie deposited for 40% protein level whereas the other levels were significantly (p<0.05) higher. The study concludes that 47.5% and 50% protein levels may depress tilapia growth and feed utilization, while 40% protein gave optimum growth.
Crude oil and its products can cause damage to aquatic ecosystem in a number of ways. Oxygen is not soluble in oil and therefore does not easily pass through even when a thin of oil is present on water.
Small ruminants (goats and sheep) production systems worldwide are significantly constrained by haemo and gastrointestinal parasites. The study was carried out in North-western Nigeria from November 2011 to October 2012 with the aim to identify the common haemoparasites and haemonchosis in small ruminants. Three hundred abomasum samples with corresponding blood samples were collected from 200 goats and 100 sheep, respectively at necropsy. The abomasa were examined by Hansen and Perry method for the presence of Haemonchus contortus while blood samples were examined using the thin blood smear and Haematocrit Centrifugation Techniques (HCT). The prevalence of Haemonchus contortus in small ruminants was 80.3% with goats and sheep having prevalence of 78% and 85%, respectively. The prevalence for H. contortus in small ruminants during late dry, early dry, late rain and early rain were 64.9%, 84.1%, 89.9% and 81.1%, respectively. The prevalence were statistically significant among the seasons (p<0.05) with highest prevalence in the late rainy season. The total number of adult worms collected was 21862. The highest adult worm burdens were obtained during late rainy season (August to October) when a mean worm burden of 180.2 ± 51.45 and PCV of 26.63 ± 0.63 were recorded. The mean worm burdens for early dry, late dry and early rain were 42.60 ± 6.93, 31.67 ± 5.56 and 61.10 ± 11.33, respectively. The PCV values for the season were 27.73 ± 0.79, 26.60 ± 0.87 and 28.40 ± 0.65, respectively. The values of PCV for the four sub-seasons were not significant from one another but the value of PCV obtained during early rain was different from those of other sub-seasons. The PCV had a weak negative correlation with worm burdens with Pearson correlation coefficient of -0.2632 which was highly significant (p<0.001). Out of 200 goats and 100 sheep examined for haemoparasites, only one goat had heavy infection with Trypanosoma vivax and a sheep had mixed infection with Theileria ovis and A